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A Hurricane Hunter mission on the afternoon of 6 September, just as Ike was approaching the Turks and Caicos Islands, measured a maximum flight-level wind of 129 kt and OSHA Height Regulations For A Safety Fence an SFMR estimate of 114 kt, supporting an increase in intensity to 115 kt. A reporting station on Grand Turk (78118) measured a sustained wind of 101 kt as the northern eyewall moved OSHA Height Regulations For A Safety Fence across the island. 

Maximum flight-level winds changed very little during the next flight early on 7 September, and Ike is estimated to have had an intensity of 110 kt when it hit Great Inagua. Before reaching Cuba, OSHA Height Regulations For A Safety Fence microwave imagery and Cuban radar suggested that Ike was completingan eyewall replacement. The estimated landfall intensity in Cuba of 115 kt is based on an SFMRwind of 119 kt and a reduced mean boundary layer wind of 105 kt reported by a dropwind sonde.

The highest sustained winds reported in Cuba were 76 kt with a gust to 107 kt at PaloSeco, 77 kt with a gust to 104 kt at Puerto Padre, OSHA Height Regulations For A Safety Fence and 70 kt with a gust to 100 kt at Velasco(Table 3).Aircraft reconnaissance reports indicated that Ike steadily intensified for about 18 h aftermoving off the northwestern coast of Cuba. 

However, both the aircraft data and microwaveimagery showed that the hurricane had a structure which likely prevented rapid intensification.By 1800 UTC 10 September, OSHA Height Regulations For A Safety Fence the aircraft data suggest that Ike had two well-defined windmaxima of nearly equal strength. The unusually broad distribution of strong winds wereassociated with surface central pressures that were much lower than would be expected for thewinds that were measured. 

The minimum pressure over the Gulf of Mexico was 944 mb near0000 UTC 11 September based on a dropwindsonde from one of the NOAA missions. A central pressure this low would generally be associated with a 115-kt hurricane.The estimated Texas landfall intensity of 95 kt is based on flight-level winds of 105 kt, OSHA Height Regulations For A Safety Fence SFMR winds up to 90 kt, and Doppler radar velocities from the Houston radar, which showed114 kt winds at 6500 feet. 

The highest 1-minute sustained wind recorded by surface instruments was 83 kt from a WeatherFlow anemometer located at Crab Lake on the Bolivar Peninsula. The same OSHA Height Regulations For A Safety Fence instrument also reported the highest 3-second gust of 97 kt. A 1-minute sustained wind of71 kt was recorded by a Texas Tech University Hurricane Research Team (TTUHRT)anemometer near Winnie, Texas, between Houston and Beaumont. 

A 3-second gust of 95 kt wasreported by a separate TTUHRT sensor near Hankamer, Texas. The pressure of 950 mb atlandfall is based on a minimum pressure of 950.7 mb reported by a TTUHRT sensor at Port Bolivar near the entrance to Galveston Bay and a pressure of 951.7 mb reported at OSHA Height Regulations For A Safety Fence the Galveston Pleasure Pier.

The post-tropical remnant low of Ike produced strong wind gusts as it moved across theOhio Valley into southeastern Canada (Table 7). Wind gusts to hurricane force were reported at Louisville, Kentucky, and Cincinnati, Columbus, and Wilmington, Ohio.Storm SurgeWhile storm surge associated with Ike affected the Turks and Caicos Islands, southernBahamas, and Cuba, there are no available OSHA Height Regulations For A Safety Fence measurements of water level heights from these areas.

Unofficial reports and state television from Cuba indicate that storm surge, and large waves as high as 50 ft, washed over and damaged coastal homes and OSHA Height Regulations For A Safety Fence other structures in the city of Baracoa near Ike’s first landfall in Cuba. Higher-than-normal water levels affected virtually the entire U.S. Gulf Coast. 

As thehurricane grew in size, the large wind field pushed water towards the coastline well before Ike’scenter made landfall near Galveston, Texas. Figure 5 shows maximum storm surge levels atvarious NOS tide stations, OSHA Height Regulations For A Safety Fence first occurring near the southwestern coast of Florida then migrating north and west along the Gulf Coast with time as Ike moved through the Gulf of Mexico.

NOS tide gauges (referenced to Mean Lower Low Water) indicate that storm surge along the west coast of Florida was generally 1 - 3 ft. Key West, Florida, measured a maximum stormsurge of 1.66 ft at 1630 UTC 9 September. The highest water levels were subsequently recordedfarther north along the west coast, OSHA Height Regulations For A Safety Fence and a maximum surge of 3.35 ft at Pensacola occurred aroundtwo days later at 2348 UTC 11 September.

Maximum storm surge along the coasts of Alabama, Mississippi, and southeastern Louisiana was generally in the 3 - 6 ft range. Dauphin Island, Alabama, recorded a storm surgeof 3.27 ft, and Grand Isle, Louisiana, OSHA Height Regulations For A Safety Fence measured a surge of 3.84 ft. The concave orientation of thecoastline in this region caused the highest surge values to occur along the coast of Mississippi and Louisiana east of the Mississippi River, including the New Orleans and Lake Pontchartrain areas. 

The Bay Waveland Yacht Club, Mississippi, measured a maximum surge of 5.81 ft whileNew Canal Station near New Orleans recorded a surge of 5.24 ft. The surge of 7.51 ft at ShellBeach, Louisiana, OSHA Height Regulations For A Safety Fence was higher than that recorded within most of the neighboring region.

Storm surge heights increased dramatically west of Grand Isle, Louisiana, and weregenerally 5 - 10 ft along the coast of south-central Louisiana, increasing to 10 - 13 ft along the southwestern Louisiana and extreme upper Texas coast near Sabine Pass and Port Arthur. Several United States Geological Survey (USGS) sensors, OSHA Height Regulations For A Safety Fence referenced to the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD88), indicate that isolated areas in Jefferson County, Texas, and Cameron Parish, Louisiana, had surge heights up to 17 ft. 

The highest storm surge measured byany NOS tide gauge was at Sabine Pass North, Texas, where 12.79 ft was recorded at 0748 UTC13 September, OSHA Height Regulations For A Safety Fence just as Ike was making landfall at Galveston. Port Arthur, located several miles inland at the head of Sabine Lake, measured a maximum surge of 11.03 ft. 

Storm surgeinundation depths are indicated for Jefferson and Orange County in Figures 6 and 7, respectively. The highest storm surge occurred on the Bolivar Peninsula and in parts of ChambersCounty, Texas (including the east side of Galveston Bay), OSHA Height Regulations For A Safety Fence roughly between the Galveston Bayentrance and just northeast of High Island. 

Complete tide gauge records for this area areunavailable since many of the sensors failed from salt water intrusion and large wave action,although ground assessment teams determined that the surge was generally between 15 and 20 ft.The highest water mark, OSHA Height Regulations For A Safety Fence collected by FEMA (referenced to NAVD88), was 17.5 ft located about10 n mi inland in Chambers County. 

Figures 8 and 9 show that water depths of at least 4 ftcovered all of the Bolivar Peninsula, OSHA Height Regulations For A Safety Fence with most areas covered by at least 10 ft of water (notincluding wave action). Much of the southern part of Chambers County was also inundated by atleast 10 ft of water.

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