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Employees, employee representatives, or employers can ask NIOSH to help learn whether health hazards are present at their place of work. NIOSH may provide assistance and information by phone and in writing, or may visit the workplace to assess exposure and employee health. Based on their findings, NIOSH will recommend ways to reduce hazards and prevent Grants For Lead Paint Removal work-related illness. 

The evaluation is done at no cost to the Grants For Lead Paint Removal employees, employee representatives, or employers. ADULT BLOOD LEAD EPIDEMIOLOGY & SURVEILLANCE (ABLES)Program Description ABLES is a long-standing state-based surveillance program of laboratory-reported adult blood lead levels (BLLs). 

From 1987 to 2011, NIOSH expanded the ABLES program from 4 to 41 states.Lead-related health effects Occupational lead exposure is an important health problem in the United States. Lead exposure causes acute and chronic adverse effects in multiple organ systems ranging from subclinical changes in function to symptomatic life-threatening intoxication. 

Moreover, evidence indicates that lead exposure at low doses can lead to adverse cardiovascular and kidney effects, cognitive dysfunction, and adverse reproductive outcomes.The objective In 2009, the ABLES program updated its case definition for an Elevated Blood Lead Level to a blood lead concentration ≥ 10 micrograms per deciliter ( µg/dL). 

The public health objective of the ABLES program is identical to the Occupational Safety and Health objective 7 in Healthy People 2020, which is to reduce the rate of adults (age 16 or older) who have BLLs ≥ 10 µg/dL. The ABLES program aims to accomplish this objective by providing guidance, technical support, and Grants For Lead Paint Removal funding to build state capacity to initiate or improve adult blood lead surveillance programs which can accurately measure trends in adult BLLs and which can effectively target interventions to prevent lead exposures.

The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services recommends that BLLs among all adults be reduced to <10 µg/dL. The U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Lead Standards require workers to be removed from lead exposure when BLLs are equal or greater than 50 µg/dL (construction industry) or 60 µg/dL (general industry) and Grants For Lead Paint Removal allow workers to return to work when the BLL is below 40 µg/dL. 

Based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) the geometric mean BLL of all adults in the United States is 1.4 ABLES state interventions to prevent lead exposures include:· conducting follow-up interviews with physicians, employers, and Grants For Lead Paint Removal workers· investigating work sites· 

Providing technical assistance· providing referrals for consultation and/or enforcement· developing and Grants For Lead Paint Removal disseminating educational materials and outreach programs. ABLES states are required to have a mandatory state requirement that laboratories report blood lead level results to the State Health Department or designee. 

The lowest blood lead level to be reported varies from state to state. Most states require reporting of all BLLs. The reporting of all BLLs, elevated or not, is extremely useful for the analysis of these data and Grants For Lead Paint Removal is recommended for any state planning to either initiate or change their reporting requirements. ABLES partnerships ABLES states are encouraged to develop effective working relationships with Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention programs within their state. 

Lead may be taken home from the workplace on clothes or Grants For Lead Paint Removal in cars thus potentially exposing spouses and children. Children who come in contact with lead-exposed workers should be targeted for blood lead screening. ABLES states are also encouraged to develop effective working relationships with other federal and state agencies involved in preventing lead exposure including OSHA, Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Department of Transportation (DOT), and Department of Defense (DOD).

NIOSH, currently the only federal funding source for adult lead exposure surveillance, provides a total of $812,500 to 40 state ABLES programs each year. NIOSH seeks to ensure the future funding of state based adult lead surveillance by creating federal partnerships.Besides the 41 ABLES states, Grants For Lead Paint Removal other partners collaborating with ABLES to achieve the Healthy People 2020 adult lead objective include:· 

OSHA--Safety and Health Topics – LEAD· Center for Construction Research and Training – lead research and training program· Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists – lead surveillance initiatives To facilitate communications on issues involving lead exposure among adults, the ABLES program maintains alistserv, Grants For Lead Paint Removal and meets once a year in conjunction with the Annual Conference of the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists.

ABLES Impact In the United States, Grants For Lead Paint Removal approximately 95% of BLLs ≥25 μg/dL in adults are work related. Lead exposure occurs mainly in the battery manufacturing, lead and zinc ore mining, and painting and paper hanging industries. In 2008, OSHA updated its National Emphasis Program for Lead to reduce occupational exposures by targeting unsafe conditions or high hazard industries. 

OSHA utilized national ABLES program data to identify those industries where elevated BLLs indicated a need for increased national focus. State ABLES programs also work with OSHA by sharing lead exposure data, Grants For Lead Paint Removal which OSHA then uses to initiate investigations and promote prevention interventions.

Over the last 17 years, a 50% decrease in the national prevalence rates of BLL ≥25 μg/dL has been documented using ABLES surveillance data. In 1994 the rate was 14.0 employed adults per 100,000; in 2010 the rate was reduced to 7.0. In 2010, Grants For Lead Paint Removal 40 state ABLES programs that provided data reported 31,081 adults with BLLs ≥10 μg/dL. 

Among these, 8,793 had BLLs ≥25 μg/dL, and 1,388 had BLLs ≥40 μg/dL. Based on data from 37 reporting states, Grants For Lead Paint Removal ABLES established the 2010 baseline rate for Healthy People 2020 objective to reduce adult lead exposure. This 2010 baseline rate for BLLs ≥10 µg/dL is 26.4 adults per 100,000 employed adults.

Though rates of BLL ≥25 μg/dL have decreased, the work to prevent elevated BLLs is still far from complete. The ABLES data from 2010 establish that lead exposure remains a national occupational health problem, Grants For Lead Paint Removal and that continued efforts to reduce lead exposures are needed. 

Because BLLs are often not available for many lead-exposed workers (e.g., the workers may not be tested or their tests may not be reported to public health authorities), Grants For Lead Paint Removal ABLES data should be considered a low estimate of the true magnitude of elevated adult lead exposures in the United States.

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