Lead Paint Removal >> How To Remove Lead Paint From Walls

Nine test kits (both chemical types) were used to test for the presence or absence of lead in a set of six alkyd oil-based paint standards prepared by CPSC's Directorate for Laboratory Sciences, Division of Chemistry (LSC) staff (at lead concentrations of 0.0 percent, 0.06 percent,0.10 percent, 0.50 percent, 3.0 percent, and 5.0 percent), How To Remove Lead Paint From Walls 34 paint samples collected from various sites in Washington D.C., and 90 paint samples collected from the Denver metropolitan area.

Conclusion Some kits did not reliably detect lead even at relatively high levels (false negatives), or registered a positive response in the absence of significant lead levels (false positives). Based on the studies, How To Remove Lead Paint From Walls CPSC and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) stated the following in their joint booklet, "Protect Your Family from Lead in Your Home (1995, later updated in 2001 with HUD added as a cosponsor): 

"Home test kits for lead are available, How To Remove Lead Paint From Walls but may not always be accurate. Consumers should not rely on these tests before doing renovation or to assure safety."JULY 2003 Five test kits were evaluated (both types) on standard paints prepared by LSC staff using two lead pigments with known concentrations (0 to 0.5 percent lead by weight). 

Different pigments were used because their solubility was believed to effect the tests' performance (lead carbonate is relatively soluble How To Remove Lead Paint From Walls and lead chromate, relatively insoluble). Samples of painted children's products previously obtained for other investigations were also tested (lead content determined by standard analytical techniques to range from below the limit of detection to >10 percent).

During this study, How To Remove Lead Paint From Walls two staff members with no experience with test kits and no training in chemistry used the kits according to manufacturer directions. These users were considered to represent typical consumers. Results None of the kits consistently detected paints containing greater than 0.06 percent lead. No kit performed well with lead chromate. 

One kit that performed the best at identifying lead-containing paint also incorrectly gave positive results for paints that contained no lead or How To Remove Lead Paint From Walls very low levels of lead. Users had difficulty understanding the instructions for kits and reported that some were physically difficult to work with. Users reported difficulty interpreting the sometimes faint or uneven color changes (one kit registered at least a slight color change on most of the standard paints, so it was not clear what a positive response should look like). 

Rhodizonate ion based tests performed poorly with red paint due to interference of the paint color with the reaction color. Conclusion Staff does not recommend the use of consumer lead test kits because testing shows that some kits may not reliably detect lead when it is present or How To Remove Lead Paint From Walls may register a positive response in the absence of significant lead levels. 

Because of their poor performance, How To Remove Lead Paint From Walls the staff does not believe that consumers would benefit from using these test kits. Staff believes that laboratory analysis remains the only reliable way to detect products that violate the CPSC's mandatory lead in paint standard and the Federal Hazardous Substances Act.

SEPTEMBER 2007 Four test kits were evaluated (two each of both types) using some of the standard paints prepared by LSC staff for the 2003 study. Two samples were paint containing lead chromate at 0.1 percent or 0.5 percent lead, How To Remove Lead Paint From Walls each covered by a layer of non-leaded paint (0 percent lead), and two samples were paint containing lead carbonate at 0.1 percent or 0.5 percent lead, each covered by a layer of non-leaded paint. 

A fifth standard paint sample was lead carbonate with 0.5 percent lead, How To Remove Lead Paint From Walls but was not covered by a layer of non-leaded paint, and a sixth sample was non leaded paint. Samples of children's products were selected from sample storage: one red crayon (lead content: <0.001 percent); one yellow crayon (0.111 percent); two parts of a PVC lunchbox (0.002 percent, 0.712 percent); one jewelry pendant (82.8 percent); one jewelry hook(79.8 percent); and one steel washer (no lead). 

Two staff members, one with no experience with test kits or training in chemistry and How To Remove Lead Paint From Walls one chemist, used the kits according to manufacturer directions.X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) was also used on the same samples to determine its usefulness in screening for lead in consumer products. Results 

All four test kit products detected lead in the standard paint sample with 0.5 percent lead carbonate with no top coat. None of the kits consistently detected the lead in the other standard paint samples that had a non-leaded paint top coat. Of the 104 total test results, How To Remove Lead Paint From Walls 56 were false negatives. Two false positive results, one each for the two rhodizonate ion-based test kits, occurred with testing a red sample, possibly due to interference of the sample's color with there action color. 

XRF correctly identified the presence or absence of lead for 12 out of 13 samples, How To Remove Lead Paint From Walls with one false negative for a sample of metal jewelry with nickel and copper plating. Procedures for the sulfide ion-based kits called for placing jewelry items in vinegar for 4 hours; the procedure for one of the other kits called for using fine sandpaper to score 

Conclusion The results of this activity showed that commercially available lead test kits may not reliably detect the presence of lead in consumer products such as metal jewelry, How To Remove Lead Paint From Walls PVC lunchboxes,crayons, or paint. Test kits may also indicate the presence of lead where there is none, because sometimes the product's colors interfere with color changes of the test. 

Although not observed in this small study, other chemical interferences may cause a positive result in the absence of lead. False negatives proved to be an issue with this study as well, How To Remove Lead Paint From Walls with the test kits failing to detect more than half the lead-containing samples. The negative results may be due to the detection method of the kits and to the types of samples chosen for the study. 

Specifically, the presence of coatings, such as layers of paint or metal plating over the lead-containing materials, could block the detection of the lead. Finally, professional use of XRF technologies may be appropriate for screening for the presence or absence of lead in products, particularly for surface level lead. However, How To Remove Lead Paint From Walls XRF detectors have limited depth of penetration, so it is possible for surface coatings or platings to mask the presence of potentially hazardous leaded base metal underneath.

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