Meth Lab Cleanup >> Risks Of Buying Seized Methamphetamine Houses

WIPE SAMPLING METHODOLOGY
A. Surface Wipe Sampling Wipe sampling to establish the presence of significant surface contamination is useful for documenting hazards. Risks Of Buying Seized Methamphetamine Houses A reference control wipe sample or samples taken from areas in which exposure is not anticipated will also help to establish the relative amount of surface contamination.
 
In instances where surface contamination is suspected and the employer has not required the use of effective Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for employees in these areas, wipe sampling may be an effective means of documenting that a skin hazard exists.I. In many instances, several wipe samples taken in an area suspected of being contaminated may be useful. For example, some surfaces which would be expected to be contaminated with chemicals because of airborne deposition of a non-volatile chemical may actually be relatively free of surface contamination because of frequent contact of the surface by the employee (i.e., frequently Risks Of Buying Seized Methamphetamine Houses contacted surfaces may be expected to be "clean" because of frequent employee contact).
 
 Wipe samples of frequently contacted surfaces in conjunction with less frequently contacted surfaces in the same vicinity can be useful to establish the likelihood that skin exposure is occurring in "clean" areas in which PPE is not being used, or is being improperly used. Wipe sampling can help establish that a significant amount of surface contamination is present in areas in which employees are not effectively protected by PPE. Housekeeping may also be demonstrated by wipe samples which show major differences in surface contamination between work areas Risks Of Buying Seized Methamphetamine Houses that have been routinely cleaned and areas which have not been recently cleaned.
 
This sampling would allow the CSHO to demonstrate the employer’s failure to maintain a clean work area. Wipe samples taken inside the sealing surface of "cleaned" respirators can also establish the absence of an effective respiratory protection program. Templates which are used to define a relatively constant surface area for obtaining a wipe sample Risks Of Buying Seized Methamphetamine Housesare generally not necessary. Templates also cannot be used except on flat surfaces, and they can cause cross-contamination if the template is not thoroughly cleaned between each use.
 
Additionally, the CSHO may want to sample a much larger surface area than the area covered by the template. This is particularly true if the CSHO wants to determine the cleanliness of a lunch table or other large surface area. In all cases, the CSHO should measure the dimensions of the area being sampled and record this value on Form OSHA-91A because the Risks Of Buying Seized Methamphetamine Houses mass amount of chemical measured by the laboratory will be used to determine the mass per area for the wipe sample.
 
Skin Sampling Skin wipe samples taken on potentially exposed areas of an employee’s body are a useful technique for demonstrating exposure to a recognized hazard. For water-soluble chemicals, a wipe pad moistened with deionized water can be used to wipe the skin. Generally, the best procedure is to allow employees to use the wipe pad to clean their Risks Of Buying Seized Methamphetamine Houses skin surfaces, and then have them insert the wipe pad into a clean container, which is labeled and sealed.
 
Hands, forearms, faces, and possibly feet may be exposed to contaminants that a wipe sample of the skin can be used to establish exposure. Include a blank water sample and use only deionized water, or another source of water approved by the laboratory, for analysis purposes.
II. ENFORCEMENT RECOMMENDATIONS
There are currently no surface contamination criteria or quantifications for skin absorption included in OSHA standards. However, some OSHA standards contain housekeeping provisions that address the issue of surface contamination. Exposures to various chemicals (e.g., formaldehyde, methylenedianiline, and methylene chloride) are Risks Of Buying Seized Methamphetamine Houses addressed in specific standards for general industry, construction, and shipyard employment.
 
 Useful information on dermal exposure standards can be found at Dermal Exposure - OSHA Standards Safety and Health Topics Page. Despite the lack of specific criteria or quantitative data for use in the enforcement of elevated exposures to surface and skin chemical hazards in the workplace, it is well established that skin exposure and ingestion of chemicals is a significant mode of occupational exposure. In instances in which a hazard can be established which is not addressed in a specific OSHA Risks Of Buying Seized Methamphetamine Houses standard, the compliance officer may consider a 5(a)(1) General Duty Clause citation to address this concern.
 
 In lieu of issuing a 5(a)(1) citation, it is suggested that alternative citations can be issued either under OSHA standards addressing sanitation (29 CFR 1910.141), hazard communication (29 CFR 1910.1200), personal protective equipment (29 CFR 1910, subpart L), exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories (29 CFR 1910.1450), or pertinent standards dealing with construction (29 CFR 1926) and shipyard employment (29 CFR 1915). In instances where a high degree Risks Of Buying Seized Methamphetamine Houses of surface contamination is evident, or clear evidence exists to establish skin exposure of employees to a recognized hazard, then 29 CFR 1910.141(a)(3) can be cited.
 
 That is, the CSHO can readily establish that the employer has failed to keep the workplace "clean to the extent that the nature of the work allows." Alternatively, 29 CFR 1910.1200(h) can be cited based upon the evidence collected by the CSHO to demonstrate that the employer failed to adequately inform and train employees on the hazards present in the workplace. Finally, a specific citation may be issued for deficiencies in PPE use designed to protect employees from skin exposure under 29 CFR 1910.132, which requires that the employer evaluate the Risks Of Buying Seized Methamphetamine Houses hazards, select proper PPE, and train employees on proper use of the PPE.
 
Preloading a group of vials with sampling filters (consult the OSHA Chemical Sampling Information files to determine Risks Of Buying Seized Methamphetamine Houses appropriate sampling media to use) is a convenient method to carry the sample media to the worksite. (Smear tabs should be inserted with the tab end out.) Clean disposable gloves should be worn when handling the filters and smear tabs. The gloves should not be powdered. The following are general recommendations for taking wipe samples.
 
 Consult the Chemical Sampling Information files for more specific instructions.1. Record each location where a wipe sample was taken. Photographs, sketches, and other means of noting sampling locations are helpful. 2. A new set of clean, disposable Risks Of Buying Seized Methamphetamine Houses gloves should be used for each sample to avoid contamination of the filter by previous samples (and the possibility of false positives) and to prevent contact with the substance. 3. Withdraw the filter from the vial with your fingers or clean tweezers. If a damp wipe sample is desired, moisten the filter with distilled water or other solvent as recommended.
 
NOTE: For skin sampling use only water. Other solvents may be appropriate for wiping surfaces depending upon the type of chemical beingsampled.4. Depending on the purpose Risks Of Buying Seized Methamphetamine Houses of the sample, it may be useful to determine the concentration of contamination (e.g., in micrograms of agent per area). For these samples, it is necessary to record the area of the surface wiped (e.g., 100 cm2). This would normally not be necessary for samples taken to simply show the presence of the contaminant. 5. Firm pressure should be applied when wiping.

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