Animal Damage >> Bird And Animal Damage To Buildings

Across the United States, wildlife habitat has been substantially changed as human populations expand and land is used for human needs. These human uses and needs often compete with wildlife which increases the potential for conflicting human-wildlife interactions. In addition, certain segments of the public strive for protection for all Bird And Animal Damage To Buildings wildlife. 

Such protection can create localized conflicts between human and wildlife activities. The Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for the USDA/APHIS/Animal Damage Control Bird And Animal Damage To Buildings program summarizes the relationship in American culture of wildlife values and wildlife damage in this way (USDA 1994): 

"Wildlife has either positive or negative values, depending on varying human perspectives and Bird And Animal Damage To Buildings circumstances . . . Wildlife generally is regarded as providing economic, recreational and aesthetic benefits . . . , and the mere knowledge that wildlife exists is a positive benefit to many people. However, . . . the activities of some wildlife may result in economic losses to agriculture and damage to property . . . 

Sensitivity to varying perspectives and values is required to manage the balance between human and wildlife needs. In addressing Bird And Animal Damage To Buildings conflicts, wildlife managers must consider not only the needs of those directly affected by wildlife damage but a range of environmental, sociocultural, and economic considerations as well.

"USDA/APHIS/Animal Damage Control is authorized by Congress to manage a program to reduce human/wildlife conflicts, and this Bird And Animal Damage To Buildings Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluates ways by which this responsibility can be carried out to resolve conflicts with bird species in Arizona. 

Individual actions on the types of sites encompassed by this analysis could each be categorically excluded under the APHIS Implementing Regulations for compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) (7 CFR 372.5(c)). This analysis covers Bird And Animal Damage To Buildings plans for current and future actions on the kinds of sites and areas described in the EA. 

Bird And Animal Damage To Buildings is a cooperatively funded and service oriented program. Before any wildlife damage management is conducted, Agreements for Control or Work Plans must be signed by the state and the land owner/administrator. The state cooperates with appropriate land and wildlife management agencies, as requested, to effectively and efficiently resolve wildlife damage problems in compliance with all applicable federal, state, and local laws. 

Program mission, developed through its strategic planning process, is two-fold. Its mission is to " provide leadership in wildlife damage management in the protection of America's agricultural, industrial and natural resources, and to safeguard public health and safety Bird And Animal Damage To Buildings. This is accomplished through: A) training of wildlife damage management professionals.

Development and improvement of strategies to reduce economic losses and threats to humans from wildlife; C) collection, evaluation, and Bird And Animal Damage To Buildings dissemination of management information; D) cooperative wildlife damage management programs; E) informing and educating the public on how to reduce wildlife damage.

Providing data and a source for limited-use management materials and equipment, including Bird And Animal Damage To Buildings pesticides (USDA 1989). This EA analyzes Bird And Animal Damage To Buildings starling (Sturnus vulgaris), blackbird (the blackbird group), feral domestic pigeon (Columbia1 - 2 livia), and raven (Corvus corax and C. cryptoleucus) damage management.

Hereinafter referred to as Bird Damage Management (BDM) for the Bird And Animal Damage To Buildings protection of livestock feed, livestock, livestock health, property, threatened and endangered species and human health and safety in the State of Arizona. Hereinafter, blackbirds refers to the blackbird group as described in the FEIS prepared by the program (USDA 1994). 

The blackbird group comprises the Subfamily Icterinae, including red-winged (Agelaius phoeniceus), tricolored (A. tricolor), rusty (Euphagus carolinus), brewer's (E. cyanocephalus), and yellow-headed blackbirds (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus); Bird And Animal Damage To Buildings brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) and bronzed cowbird (Tangavius aeneus); and greattailed grackle (Cassidix mexicanus), and common grackle (Quiscalus quiscula). 

The State encompasses 72.7 million acres in 15 counties. During FY 1995, Bird And Animal Damage To Buildings had agreements to conduct on 3,371 acres of private land in 4 counties (Maricopa, Yuma, Pinal, and Cochise) (MIS 1996). Thee state generally only conducts actions on a portion of the properties under Agreement in any one year; in FY 1995 that portion was 46% or 1,546 acres. 

Bird And Animal Damage To Buildings has Agreements for Control with 24 dairies and feedlots in the State of Arizona. In FY-1995, 10 of those operators in 4 counties (Maricopa, Yuma, Pinal and Cochise) requested assistance, and Bird And Animal Damage To Buildings provided operational service to 8 cattle feedlots and 2 dairies. 1.3 Need For Action 1.3.1 

Summary of Proposed Action The proposed action is to continue the current activities in the State for the protection of livestock feed, livestock, livestock health, property, threatened and endangered species and human health and safety. A major goal of the Bird And Animal Damage To Buildings program is to minimize loss or the risk of loss of livestock feed.

The risk of bird-related livestock health problems caused by starlings and blackbirds at dairies and feedlots. The program would also operate to minimize damage or risk of damage to property and human health and safety caused by birds. To meet these goals, Bird And Animal Damage To Buildings would have the objective of responding to all requests for assistance with, at a minimum, technical assistance or self-help advice.

Where appropriate and when cooperative funding is available, direct control assistance in which professional Bird And Animal Damage To Buildings specialists conduct damage management actions. An Integrated Wildlife Damage Management (IWDM) approach would be implemented which would allow use of all legal techniques and methods, used singly or in combination, to meet requestor needs for resolving conflicts with birds. 

Livestock feeders, dairies, and others requesting assistance would be provided with Bird And Animal Damage To Buildings information regarding the use of effective nonlethal and lethal techniques. Lethal methods used by would include shooting, trapping, and DRC-1339 (Starlicide). 

Bird And Animal Damage To Buildings would be allowed in the State, when requested, on private property sites or public facilities where a need has been documented, upon completion of an Agreement for Control. All management actions would comply with appropriate federal, state, and local laws. 

Agriculture generates nearly $1.9 billion in annual sales of farm and ranch Bird And Animal Damage To Buildings commodities in Arizona. Livestock production, primarily of cattle, hogs, and sheep, is one of the primary agricultural industry sectors and accounts for about 44% of total farm commodity cash receipts (USDA-AASS 1995). 

Livestock production in Arizona contributes Bird And Animal Damage To Buildings substantially to local economies. In 1994 there were an estimated 830,000 cattle and calves in the State valued at more than $506 million. Between 1988 and 1995, an average of 4,514 operators ran 875,000 cattle and calves valued at $527 million annually (USDA-AASS 1995). 

Arizona's feedlots marketed 377,000 heads valued at $147 million during 1994. As of April 1, 1995, there were 192,000 head of cattle and calves on feed for the slaughter Bird And Animal Damage To Buildings market in Arizona. Of these, 174,000 were steers.

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