Animal Damage >> Animal Control And Wildlife Management

The National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) of 1966, and its implementing regulations (36 CFR 800), requires federal agencies to: 1) determine whether activities they propose constitute "undertakings" that can result in changes in the Animal Control And Wildlife Management character or use of historic properties. 

To evaluate the effects of such Animal Control And Wildlife Management undertakings on such historic resources and consult with the State Historic Preservation Office regarding the value and management of specific cultural, archaeological and historic resources, and 3) consult with appropriate American Indian Tribes to determine whether they have concerns for traditional cultural properties in areas of these federal undertakings. 

CDC actions on tribal lands are only conducted at the tribe’s request and under signed agreement; thus, the tribes have control over any potential conflict with cultural resources on tribal properties. The Arizona State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO) indicated certain Animal Control And Wildlife Management methods such as noise-producing scaring devices could constitute "undertakings" as defined by the NHPA that could adversely affect the visual or audible elements of certain kinds of historic properties if used at or adjacent to such properties. 

Similarly, these types of activities could conceivably affect properties of traditional cultural value to American Indian Tribes that are outside of tribal lands. In situations where this might occur, Animal Control And Wildlife Management will consult with the SHPO and potentially affected tribes to avoid adverse impacts. 

Other types of actions do not cause ground disturbances nor do they otherwise have the potential to affect visual, audible, or atmospheric elements of historic properties and are thus not undertakings as defined by the NHPA. Animal Control And Wildlife Management may be asked to assist in protecting properties and structures that are experiencing damage caused by birds and thus could potentially benefit historic properties. Impacts on sites or resources protected under NHPA : 

With the possible exception of certain types of habitat alteration methods and noise-producing scaring techniques (see section 2.3.4), actions are not undertakings that could adversely affect historic resources. Animal Control And Wildlife Management would consult with the SHPO on actions involving the above exceptions in situations where such activities have the potential to adversely affect historic properties. 

Lethal CDC is futile because 50-60% of blackbird and starling populations die each year anyway. Because natural mortality in blackbirds populations is 50 - 65% per year (see section 4.1.1.1), some persons argue that this shows lethal Animal Control And Wildlife Management actions are futile. However, the rate of natural mortality has little or no relationship to the effectiveness of lethal CDC because natural mortality generally occurs randomly throughout a population and throughout the course of a year. 

Natural mortality is too gradual in individual concentrations of depredating birds to adequately reduce the damage that such concentrations are causing. It is probable that mortality caused by Animal Control And Wildlife Management actions is not additive to natural mortality but merely displaces it. In any event, it is apparent that the rate of mortality from Animal Control And Wildlife Management is well below the extent of any natural fluctuations in overall annual mortality and is, therefore, insignificant to regional populations. 

The objective of lethal CDC is not to necessarily add to overall blackbird or starling mortality, which would be futile under current funding limitations, but to redirect mortality to a segment of the population that is causing damage in order to realize benefits during the current production season. The resiliency of these bird populations does not mean individual Animal Control And Wildlife Management actions are not successful in reducing damage, but that periodic, perhaps annual, actions are necessary in many damage situations. 

Alternative 1 - Continue the Current Federal Animal Control And Wildlife Management Program. This is the Proposed Action as described in Chapter 1 and is the "No Action” alternative as defined by the Council on Environmental Quality for analysis of ongoing programs or activities. 2) Alternative 2 - No Federal Animal Control And Wildlife Management Animal Control And Wildlife Management. 

This alternative consists of no federal CDC. Alternative 3 - Technical Assistance Only. Under this alternative, Animal Control And Wildlife Management would not conduct any direct operational activities in Arizona. If requested, affected producers would be provided with technical assistance information only. 4) Alternative 4 - Nonlethal Required Before Lethal Control. This alternative would not allow any lethal control by until nonlethal methods have been tried and found to be inadequate in each depredation situation. 

Description of The Alternatives 3.2.1 ALTERNATIVE 1 - Continue the Current Program (the Proposed Action) A brief Animal Control And Wildlife Management description of the proposed action was presented in Chapter 1, section 1.3.1. The discussion that follows contains further information intended to foster understanding of the proposed action. Integrated Wildlife Damage Management.

During more than 70 years of resolving wildlife damage problems, Animal Control And Wildlife Management has considered, developed, and used numerous methods of managing damage problems 1994, P. 2-15). The efforts have involved the research and development of new methods, and the implementation of effective strategies to resolve wildlife damage. 

The most effective approach to resolving wildlife damage is to integrate the use of several methods simultaneously or sequentially. Animal Control And Wildlife Management is the implementation and application of safe and practical methods for the prevention and control of damage caused by wildlife based on local problem analyses and the informed judgement of trained personnel. 

The CDC Program applies, commonly known as Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Directive 2.105), to reduce damage through the Animal Control And Wildlife Management Decision Model (Slate et. al. 1992) described in the FEIS. A complete discussion of the decision model is presented in 1994). The philosophy behind CDC is to implement effective management techniques in a cost effective1 manner while minimizing the potentially harmful effects on humans, target and nontarget species, and the environment. 

CDC draws from the largest possible array of options to create a combination of techniques appropriate for the specific circumstances. Animal Control And Wildlife Management may incorporate cultural practices (i.e., animal husbandry), habitat modification, animal behavior (i.e., scaring), local population reduction, or any combination of these, depending on the characteristics of the specific damage problems. 

In selecting management techniques for specific damage situations consideration is given to: Species responsible, Magnitude of the damage, Geographic extent of damage, Duration and frequency of the damage, Prevention of future damage (lethal and nonlethal techniques) The Animal Control And Wildlife Management strategies that employs consist of: Technical Assistance Recommendations (implementation is the responsibility of the requestor): 

Animal Control And Wildlife Management personnel provide information, demonstrations, and advice on available wildlife damage management techniques. Technical assistance includes demonstrations on the proper use of management devices (propane exploders, cage traps, etc.) and information on animal husbandry, habits and habitat management, and animal behavior modification that can reduce damage problems. 

Technical assistance is generally provided following an on-site visit or verbal consultation with the requestor. Generally, several management strategies are described to the requestor for short and long-term solutions to damage problems; these strategies are based on the level of risk, need, and practical application. Technical assistance may require substantial effort by Animal Control And Wildlife Management personnel in the decision making process, but the actual management is the responsibility of the requester.

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