Animal Damage >> Home Remedies To Rid Lawns Of Small Animals

Shooting is more effective as a dispersal technique than as a way to reduce starling numbers. The number that can be killed by shooting is generally very small in relation to the number involved in damage situations. Usually only a few dozen birds can be shot from individual flocks that can number anywhere from a few hundred to many thousands or hundreds of thousands before the rest of the birds Home Remedies To Rid Lawns Of Small Animalsbecome gun shy. 

Shooting, however, can be helpful in some situations to supplement and reinforce other dispersal techniques. It is selective for target species and may be used in conjunction with the use of spotlights, decoys, and calling. Shooting with rifles or shotguns is sometimes used to manage bird damage problems when Home Remedies To Rid Lawns Of Small Animals lethal methods are determined to be appropriate. 

The birds are killed as quickly and humanely as possible. Chemical Management Methods. All chemicals used by Home Remedies To Rid Lawns Of Small Animals are registered under FIFRA (administered by the EPA and ADA) or by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). CDC personnel that use chemical methods are certified as pesticide applicators by ADA and are required to adhere to all certification requirements set forth in FIFRA. 

Arizona state pesticide control laws and regulations. Chemicals are only used on private, public or tribal property sites with authorization from the property owner/manager. The use of chemical Home Remedies To Rid Lawns Of Small Animals toxicants to take wildlife on public lands in Arizona (including state, FS, BLM, and local government) is much more restrictive since the passage of Proposition 201. 

Chemical control methods can only be used on public lands for the protection of human health and safety, wildlife research, and for rodent control. The primary chemical method that would be used in the proposed action is Home Remedies To Rid Lawns Of Small Animals (Starlicide). For over 30 years, Home Remedies To Rid Lawns Of Small Animals has proven to be an effective method of starling control at feedlots (West et.al. 1967, Besser et.al. 1967 and Decino et.al. 1966). 

Studies continue to document the effectiveness of CDC in resolving starling problems at feedlots (West and Besser 1976 and Glahn 1982, and Glahn et.al. 1987). CDC is a slow acting avicide that is registered with the EPA for the control of several species of birds, including blackbirds, starlings, feral domestic pigeons, crows, ravens, magpies, and Home Remedies To Rid Lawns Of Small Animals. CDC was developed as an avicide because of its differential toxicity to animals. 

More acute avian toxicity data are available for CDC than for any other pesticide used in the world. More than 40 species have been tested. CDC is highly toxic to sensitive species but only slightly toxic to nonsensitive birds, predatory birds, and Home Remedies To Rid Lawns Of Small Animals. For example, starlings, a highly sensitive species, require a dose of only 0.3 mg per bird to cause death (Royall et.al 1967). 

Most bird species that are responsible for damage, including starlings, blackbirds, feral domestic pigeons, crows, magpies, and ravens are highly sensitive to Home Remedies To Rid Lawns Of Small Animals . Many other bird species such as raptors, sparrows, and eagles are classified as nonsensitive (USDA 1995). Numerous studies show that CDC poses a small risk of primary poisoning to nontarget and threatened and endangered species (USDA 1994). 

Secondary poisoning has not been observed with treated baits -- carcasses of birds which died from CDC were fed to raptors and scavenger mammals for 30 to 200 days with no3 - 6 symptoms of secondary poisoning observed (Cunningham et.al. 1981). CDC is unstable in the environment and degrades rapidly when exposed to sunlight, heat, or ultra violet radiation. Home Remedies To Rid Lawns Of Small Animals tightly binds to soil and has low mobility. 

The half life is about 25 hours, which means it is nearly 100% broken down within a week, and identified metabolites (i.e., chemicals left after breakdown) have low toxicity. Aquatic and invertebrate toxicity are low (USDA 1994). Other BDM chemicals that might be used or recommended by Home Remedies To Rid Lawns Of Small Animals if they become registered would be nonlethal repellents such as methyl anthranilate (artificial grape flavoring used in foods and soft drinks sold for human consumption) which is currently being investigated as a livestock feed additive. 

Such chemicals must undergo rigorous testing and research to prove safety, effectiveness, and low environmental risks before they would be registered by EPA or FDA. 3.2.2 ALTERNATIVE 2 - No Federal Bird Damage Management This alternative would consist of no federal involvement in BDM in the State -- neither direct operational management assistance nor technical assistance to provide information on nonlethal and/or lethal Home Remedies To Rid Lawns Of Small Animals. 

Management techniques would be available from Home Remedies To Rid Lawns Of Small Animals. Information on future developments in nonlethal and lethal management techniques that culminate from research efforts by CDC’s research branch would still be available to producers. They would be left with the option to conduct their own bird damage control efforts. 

CDC is currently only available for use by CDC employees. Therefore use of this chemical by private individuals would be illegal. 3.2.3 ALTERNATIVE 3 - Technical Assistance Only This alternative would not allow operational BDM in the State. CDC would only provide technical assistance and make recommendations Home Remedies To Rid Lawns Of Small Animals when requested. 

Producers, state agency personnel, or others could conduct BDM activities including the use of traps, shooting, and any nonlethal methods they deem effective. CDC is currently only available for use by CDC employees. Therefore use of this chemical by private individuals would be illegal. 3.2.4 ALTERNATIVE 4 - Nonlethal Control Required Before Lethal This alternative would allow no use of lethal methods by Home Remedies To Rid Lawns Of Small Animals in the State as described under the proposed action until nonlethal methods have been employed in a given damage situation and found to be ineffective or inadequate. 

No preventive lethal CDC control would be allowed. Producers would still have the option of implementing their own lethal control measures as described in sections 3.2.2 and 3.2.3.3 - 7 3.3 Alternatives Considered But Not Analyzed in Detail With Rationale Several alternatives were considered but not analyzed in Home Remedies To Rid Lawns Of Small Animals detail. These were: 3.3.1 Compensation for Bird Damage Losses. 

The Compensation alternative would require the establishment of a system to reimburse persons impacted by bird damage. This alternative was eliminated from further analysis because no federal or state laws currently exist to authorize such action. Under such an alternative, Home Remedies To Rid Lawns Of Small Animals would not provide any direct control or technical assistance. 

Aside from lack of legal authority, analysis of this alternative in the FEIS indicated that the Home Remedies To Rid Lawns Of Small Animals concept has many drawbacks (USDA 1994): . It would require larger expenditures of money and labor to investigate and validate all losses, and determine and administer appropriate compensation. . Compensation would most likely be below full market value. It is difficult to make timely responses to all requests to assess and confirm losses, and many losses could not be verified. 

For example, it would be impossible to prove conclusively in individual situations that birds were responsible for disease outbreaks even though they may actually have been responsible. Thus, a compensation program that requires verification would not meet its objective for mitigating such Home Remedies To Rid Lawns Of Small Animals losses.

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