Animal Damage >> How To Keep Animals Out Of Your Attic

Under this alternative ADC would not assist in resolving bird damage problems. Current and potential cooperating facilities would have to withstand How To Keep Animals Out Of Your Attic losses and the risk of disease problems or resort to their own BDM. Their costs for conducting their own BDM would depend on the methods chosen.

Nonlethal methods such as exclusionary fencing and overhead barriers would most likely cost in the hundreds of thousands of dollars per facility to install and maintain and could cause additional How To Keep Animals Out Of Your Attic costs in the form of reduced efficiency. If Illegal pesticide use occurred, it might be less expensive if it was not detected by enforcement agencies, or much more expensive if the use was detected and penalties were imposed.

Alternative 3 - Technical Assistance Only. Under this alternative, ADC would only provide advice to livestock feeding facilities and others with bird damage problems. Since DRC-1339 is only registered How To Keep Animals Out Of Your Attic for use by ADC personnel, such facilities would not have it as a legal option and ADC could not recommend its use. Facility operators’ costs for conducting their own BDM would depend on the methods chosen.

The impacts would likely be similar to Alternative 2.4.1.4.4 Alternative 4 - Nonlethal Required Before Lethal Under this alternative, livestock feeding How To Keep Animals Out Of Your Attic facilities would not receive operational lethal BDM assistance from ADC until they have tried one or more nonlethal methods and failed.

This alternative would resultin about the same costs vs. avoided losses as the current program for some operations who have already tried nonlethal How To Keep Animals Out Of Your Attic methods. For others who determined that no nonlethal methods were suitable or practical for their situations, the cost impacts would likely be similar to Alternatives 2 and 3.

Table B-1 shows bird numbers estimated at all facilities to which ADC provided BDM services in Arizona during FY 95. Estimates by ADC personnel of How To Keep Animals Out Of Your Attic blackbirds and starlings feeding at individual feedlots ranged from 3,000 to 50,000, and averaged 20,500 for individual estimates. The majority of these birds are wintering migrants.

This is supported by the fact that damage problems do not begin until November each season and end around the first of March. The cumulative How To Keep Animals Out Of Your Attic total number of birds observed over the entire season was more than 1.5 million. Table B-1. Estimates of the number of blackbirds and starlings feeding at cooperating livestock feedlots and dairies throughout the 1994-95 winter migrant period in Arizona.

From 6 to 10 observations were made at each facility during the season. Periodic observations were made beginning in November 1994 and ending in February 1995. Intervals (number of days) between How To Keep Animals Out Of Your Attic observations on each facility were variable. ach estimate was made the day prior to applying DRC-1339 treated bait to kill depredating birds.

Most of the birds die some distance from the treated area within 24-48 hours making actual mortality difficult to determine. However, these bait How To Keep Animals Out Of Your Attic applications were believed to be effective in killing most of the blackbirds and starlings feeding at the facilities at the time, because the facility operators reported few birds returning following treatment.

Bird numbers generally build back up during the interval between treatments. Thus, the actual numbers of birds that would have fed at the How To Keep Animals Out Of Your Attic facilities probably would have been higher to some unknown degree than that shown by Table A-1 if ADC had not conducted lethal control.

It is reasonable to predict that, without lethal damage management using DRC-1339, bird numbers would accumulate to some How To Keep Animals Out Of Your Attic degree at each facility during the wintering period. The peak number of birds using all facilities combined would be somewhere between the 200,000 average combined total and the 1.5 million cumulative combined total shown in Table A-1.

Bailey (1966) studied the seasonal abundance of starlings at feedlots in Utah and showed that starling numbers doubled at feed lots between November and January. Therefore, it is reasonable to conclude that How To Keep Animals Out Of Your Attic starling and blackbird numbers at cooperating facilities probably double between the time of first observations and mid-season.

This suggests the total number of such birds at all cooperating facilities exceed 520,000 by January. We believe an approximate depiction How To Keep Animals Out Of Your Attic of the seasonal relationship between cumulative numbers of blackbirds/starlings at cooperating feedlots/dairies in the State through the wintering period is as shown in Figure 1. We estimate the wintering period for migrant blackbirds and starlings to be about 150 days.

Using the assumed total bird numbers represented by the graph in Figure 1, we estimate that the average number of birds per day at all How To Keep Animals Out Of Your Attic cooperating feedlots and dairies combined over the course of the wintering period would have been about 300,0002 in FY-1995 in the absence of lethal BDM.

Besser et al. (1968) calculated starlings and redwing blackbirds cost feedlot operators $84 and $2, respectively, per 1000 birds based on observations of feeding habits of banded and color-marked birds at 12 feedlots in Colorado. The How To Keep Animals Out Of Your Attic differences between the two species were because starlings consumed a greater quantity of feed per bird and selected more expensive components of the feed rations than did redwings.

The cost of the feed consumed by the two species was reported to be $0.03/lb. for starlings and $0.015/lb. for redwings in 1967. Feed costs for How To Keep Animals Out Of Your Attic operators in Arizona in 1995 averaged about $150 per ton or $0.075/lb. Assuming redwings do not feed selectively when consuming livestock feed, then the value per pound consumed by redwings in 1995 would be the average cost per pound of feed, or $0.075.

Assuming starlings consume feed ration components that are twice as expensive as the average cost per pound of feed (as indicated by the Besser study), the value per pound consumed by starlings in 1995 was $0.15. The Besser et al. study reported that (1) starlings and redwings obtained 50% and 10%, respectively, of the feed they How To Keep Animals Out Of Your Attic consumed from feed troughs (the rest of the birds’ feed consumption is assumed to have been spilled grain which would otherwise not be used by livestock anyway), (2) starlings and redwings spent 50% and 30%, respectively, of the days during winter at the feedlots, and (3) consumption capacities per bird per day were 28.3 g

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