Animal Damage >> How To Stop Animals From Digging Up Flower Beds

Direct control assistance is implemented when the problem cannot effectively be resolved through technical assistance, and when Cooperative Agreements provide for direct control assistance. The initial investigation defines the nature and history of the problem, extent of damage, and the species responsible for the damage. Professional skills of personnel are often required to effectively resolve problems, especially if restricted pesticides are proposed, or the problem is complex requiring the direct supervision of a wildlife professional. How To Stop Animals From Digging Up Flower Beds considers the biology and behavior of the damaging species and other factors using the decision model (Slate et al. 1992).

The recommended strategy(ies) may include any combination of preventive and corrective actions that could be implemented by the requestor, or other agency, as appropriate. Two strategies are available: 1. Preventive Damage Management. Preventive damage management is applying wildlife damage management strategies before damage occurs, based on historical damage problems. As requested and appropriate, How To Stop Animals From Digging Up Flower Beds personnel provide information and conduct demonstrations or take action to prevent these historical problems from recurring. Preventive damage management can take place on private lands without special authorization. 2. Corrective Damage Management Corrective damage management is applying wildlife damage management to stop or reduce current losses.

As requested and appropriate, personnel provide information and conduct demonstrations or, with the appropriate signed agreement, take action to prevent additional losses from recurring. For example, in areas where livestock feed depredation is occurring, How To Stop Animals From Digging Up Flower Beds may provide information about exclusionary techniques, animal husbandry, mechanical scare devices, and pyrotechnics, or conduct operational damage management to stop the losses. 3 - 3 Bird Damage Management Methods Available for Use A number of methods are available for consideration in bird damage situations: Nonlethal Methods Agricultural producer practices. These consist primarily of nonlethal preventive methods such as cultural methods and habitat modification.

Cultural methods and other management techniques are implemented by the livestock producer. Producers are encouraged to use these methods, based on the level of risk, need, and professional judgement on their effectiveness and practicality (USDA 1992). Producer practices recommended by include: C Cultural methods. These generally involve modifications to the level of care or attention given to livestock which may vary depending on the age and size of the livestock. Animal husbandry practices include but are not limited to How To Stop Animals From Digging Up Flower Beds techniques such as night feeding, indoor feeding, closed barns or corrals, removal of spilled grain or standing water, and use of bird proof feeders (Johnson and Glahn 1994). Increased feed size may reduce consumption by starlings but may not be cost effective for the producer (Twedt and Glahn 1984).

Animal behavior modification. This refers to tactics that alter the behavior of wildlife and reduce damages. Animal behavior modification may use scare tactics or fencing to deter or repel animals that cause loss or damage (Twedt and Glahn 1982). Some but not all devices used to accomplish this are:  Bird-proof fences and feeders  Electronic guards  Propane exploders  Pyrotechnics  Distress Calls and sound producing devices  Chemical frightening agents  Repellents These techniques are generally only practical in small feedlot situations. Scaring devices such as distress calls, helium filled eye spot balloons, and moving disks can be effective but usually only for a short period of time before birds become How To Stop Animals From Digging Up Flower Beds accustomed and learn to ignore them (Schmidt and Johnson 1984, Bomford 1990, Rossbach 1975, Mott 1985, Shirota et.al. 1983, and Arhart 1972).

Mylar tape has How To Stop Animals From Digging Up Flower Beds produced mixed results in its effectiveness to frighten birds (Dolbeer et.al. 1986, and Tobin et.al. 1988). Bird proof fencing could be effective but is generally cost-prohibitive in most situations, particularly because of the aerial mobility of birds which requires overhead barriers as well as conventional. Fencing How To Stop Animals From Digging Up Flower Beds adequate to stop bird movements can also restrict movements of livestock and other wildlife (Fuller-Perrine and Tobin 1993). Heavy plastic strips hung vertically in open doorways have been successful in some situations in excluding birds (Johnson and Glahn 1994). The plastic strips, however, can How To Stop Animals From Digging Up Flower Beds prevent filling of the feed troughs at livestock feeding facilities or can be covered up when the feed is poured into the trough by the feed truck. They are not practical for open-air feedlot How To Stop Animals From Digging Up Flower Beds operations that are not housed in buildings.

Scaring devices such as propane exploders are How To Stop Animals From Digging Up Flower Beds often not practical under large feedlot situations because of the disturbance to livestock, although livestock will habituate to the noise. Birds quickly learn to ignore scaring devices if the birds’ fear of the methods is not reinforced with shooting or other tactics. Chemical frightening agents such as Avitrol work well in some situations. Avitrol is not completely How To Stop Animals From Digging Up Flower Beds nonlethal in that a small portion of the birds are killed. This chemical works by causing distress behavior in the birds that consume treated bait kernels which generally frightens the other birds from the site. Avitrol is a restricted use pesticide that can only be sold to certified applicators and is available in several bait formulations in which only a portion of the individual grains How To Stop Animals From Digging Up Flower Beds carry the chemical.

Birds that eat the treated portion of the bait behave erratically and give warning How To Stop Animals From Digging Up Flower Beds cries that frighten other birds from the area. Generally birds that eat the treated bait will die (Johnson and Glahn 1994). Methyl anthranilate is currently under investigation as a potential bird taste repellent. If successful, this grape flavoring may become available for use as a livestock feed additive (Mason et.al. 1984; 1989). Naphthalene (moth balls) has How To Stop Animals From Digging Up Flower Beds proven to be ineffective as a bird repellent (Dolbeer et.al. 1988). Methiocarb is a taste repellent that has also been proven ineffective in inhibiting overall consumption of feed by birds (Tobin 1985). Alpha-chloralose is an oral tranquilizing agent that can be used to capture birds but is often not cost effective and very labor How To Stop Animals From Digging Up Flower Beds intensive (Wright 1973; Feare et.al. 1981).

The drug is currently only registered for use in capturing waterfowl, feral domestic pigeons, and coots. Decoy and nest box traps are used by How To Stop Animals From Digging Up Flower Beds for preventive and corrective damage management. Decoy traps are set in limited numbers in selected How To Stop Animals From Digging Up Flower Beds locations where a resident population is causing localized damage or where other techniques cannot be used. Decoy traps are similar in design to the Australian Crow Trap as reported by Johnson and Glahn (1994) and McCracken (1972). Live decoy birds are How To Stop Animals From Digging Up Flower Beds placed in the trap with sufficient food and water to assure their survival. Feeding behavior and calls of the decoys attract other birds into the trap. Nest box traps are effective in capturing local breeding and post breeding starlings in How To Stop Animals From Digging Up Flower Beds limited areas (DeHaven and Guarino 1969; Knittle and Guarino 1976).

Heusmann and Bellville (1978) reported that nest removal was an effective but time-consuming How To Stop Animals From Digging Up Flower Beds method of starling control. Trapped birds are euthanized. Because problem bird species are highly mobile and can easily return to damage sites from long distances, relocation to other areas following live capture would not be effective. Since starlings, blackbirds, feral domestic pigeons, and ravens are numerous throughout Arizona, they are rarely if ever relocated because How To Stop Animals From Digging Up Flower Beds habitats in other areas are generally already occupied. Translocation of wildlife is discouraged by How To Stop Animals From Digging Up Flower Beds policy (How To Stop Animals From Digging Up Flower Beds Directive 2.501) because of stress to the relocated animal, poor survival rates, and difficulties in adapting to new locations or habitats. Other localities and land managing3 - 5 agencies are frequently reluctant to accept nonindigenous species such as feral domestic pigeons and starlings because of the problems the bird How To Stop Animals From Digging Up Flower Beds cause.

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