Animal Damage >> Roof Damage From Raccoons

The state has 10 listed and 1 candidate bird species in the State (U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service 1996), 5 of which are raptors -- the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), northern aplomado falcon (Falco femoralis septentrionalis), Mexican spotted owl (Strix occidentalis lucida), and cactus ferruginous pygmy-owl Roof Damage From Raccoons (Glaucidium brasilianum cactorum) (candidate species).

Numerous research studies, cited elsewhere in this EA, have shown does not impact raptors. The 1992 B.O. from USFWS concluded no adverse impacts on the American peregrine falcon, bald eagle, or northern aplomado falcon were likely from’s use of Roof Damage From Raccoons. In January of 1995, and USFWS requested formal consultation on several species not covered by the 1992 opinion, which included the Mexican spotted owl, and that consultation is pending.

However, Roof Damage From Raccoons’s chemical uses for BDM have not occurred in or near spotted owl habitat and secondary hazards to raptors have been shown to be virtually nonexistent (USDA 1994, Appendix P). Therefore, we have concluded that the proposed action will have no effect on any listed raptor in the State of Arizona. Of the six remaining listed bird species, the whooping crane (Grus americana), Yuma clapper rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus), brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis).

California condor (Gymnogyps californianus), and southwestern willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) have a range, diet, and habits which preclude exposure to any Roof Damage From Raccoons bait sites. Therefore we have concluded that this project will have no effect on any of the above listed birds in the State of Arizona. The masked bobwhite (Colinus virginianus ridgewayi) range is restricted to a captive rearing facility and relocation sites on the Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge.

There are no confirmed sightings of the masked bobwhite off the refuge and studies on the refuge suggest the bird has a home range of approximately one square mile. Roof Damage From Raccoons conducted one feedlot operation approximately 150 miles from this site during the winter of 1994-95.

Based on the restricted home range and distribution of the masked bobwhite and the distance from any potential control operation, we have concluded that the proposed project will have no effect on this endangered species. The U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service has been informed of these conclusions and any RPAs or RPMs that are established due to section Roof Damage From Raccoons – 117 consultations will be followed to avoid adverse impacts.

Chapter 4 provides information needed for making informed decisions in selecting the appropriate alternative for meeting the purpose of the proposed action. The chapter analyzes the environmental consequences of each alternative in relation to the issues identified for detailed analysis in Roof Damage From Raccoons. This section analyzes the environmental consequences of each alternative in comparison with the proposed action to determine if the real or potential impacts are greater, lesser, or the same.

The following resource values within the State are not expected to be significantly impacted by any of the alternatives analyzed: soils, geology, minerals, water quality/quantity, floodplains, wetlands, visual resources, air quality, prime and unique farmlands, aquatic resources, timber, and range. These Roof Damage From Raccoons resources will not be analyzed further.

Cumulative and Unavoidable Impacts: Discussed in relationship to each of the potentially affected species analyzed in this chapter. Irreversible and Irretrievable Commitments of Resources: Other than minor uses of fuels for motor vehicles and other materials, there are no irreversible or irretrievable commitments of resources. Impacts on sites or resources protected under the National Historic Preservation Act: Roof Damage From Raccoons BDM actions are not undertakings that could adversely affect historic resources.

Consultation with the Arizona State Historic Preservation Office determined this Roof Damage From Raccoons operation produces no ground disturbances and therefore would have no effect on historic resources. Issues Analyzed in Detail Effects on Target Species Populations Alternative 1. - Continue the Current Federal Bird Damage Management Program (The Proposed Action as described in Chapter 1).

With the exception of feral domestic pigeons, which maintain local residency and are not migratory, population estimates useful for evaluating impacts of BDM actions are only available on a nationwide and regional basis. Therefore, this Roof Damage From Raccoons analysis focuses on regional population impacts. Since the majority of blackbirds and starlings are migratory and range over broad expanses of territory from northern to southern latitudes over the course of a year, this type of analysis is appropriate.

BDM work for feedlots and dairies conducted by the Arizona Roof Damage From Raccoons program occurs in the winter following the arrival of migrants. Winter migrants arrive in Arizona from a large area of the western United States and Canada giving credence to the regional scope of this analysis.

The northwest and southwest regions as defined by Dolbeer and Stehn (1983) are used in this analysis because the boundaries of these geographical units are based on ecological differences making regions more meaningful in terms of migratory bird problems.

Colonization of North America by the European Starling began on March 6, 1890 when Mr. Eugene Scheifflin, a member of the Roof Damage From Raccoons Acclimatization Society, introduced 80 starlings into New York's Central Park. The birds thrived and exploited their new habitat. By 1918, less than 30 years after their introduction in New York City, the advance line of migrant juveniles extended from Ohio to Alabama; by 1926 from Illinois to Texas, by 1941 from Idaho to New Mexico, by 1946 to California and Canadian coasts (Miller 1975).

In just 50 short years the Roof Damage From Raccoons starling had colonized the United States and expanded into Canada and Mexico and 80 years after the initial introduction had become one of the most common birds4 – 2 in North America (Feare 1984). Precise counts of blackbird and starling populations do not exist but one estimate placed the United States summer population of the blackbird group at over 1 billion and the winter population at 500 million.

The majority of these birds occur in the eastern U.S., for example Roof Damage From Raccoons surveys in the south eastern part of the country estimated 350 million blackbirds and starlings in winter roosts (Bookhout and White 1981). Meanley and Royal (1976) estimated 538 million blackbirds and starlings in winter roosts across the country during the winter of 1974-75.

Of this total 26% or 139 million were in the west. An extensive population survey by Dolbeer and Stehn published in 1979 showed that, in the southwestern U.S., the number of Roof Damage From Raccoons breeding starlings doubled between 1968 and 1976. In California, where starlings were first observed in 1942, the number of breeding birds increased by 19% during the same period.

Breeding Bird Survey data from Hines et al. (1996) indicate a slight increase (0.8% per year) in the starling breeding population in the western U.S. from 1966 -1979, and a slight Roof Damage From Raccoons decrease (2.7% per year) from 1980 - 1994. Red-winged blackbirds showed a gradual increase (2.6% per year) from 1966 – 1979 and a slight decline (1% per year) from 1980 - 1994.

Yellow-headed blackbirds showed a 6.4% per year increase from 1966 - 1979 and very slight increase from 1980 - 1994. Brewer’s blackbird and the brown headed cowbird which occur in Arizona show slightly Roof Damage From Raccoons increasing or decreasing trends in the western breeding populations.

The bronzed cowbird shows a declining trend in western breeding populations (7.2%/year 1966-1979, and 11.6%/year 1980 - 1994), but the overall trend for North America is increasing (2%/year 1966 - 1994) (Hines et al. 1996). The nationwide starling population has been estimated at 140 million (Johnson and Glahn 1994).

The winter Roof Damage From Raccoons starling population in the northwest and southwest regions has been estimated at 27.8 million. The northwest and southwest regional population of the blackbird group is 139 million of which 27.8 million are starlings. All of the above information indicates that populations of starlings and blackbirds have been relatively stable in recent years. For most species that show upward or downward trends, such trends have been Roof Damage From Raccoons gradual.

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