Animal Damage >> What Animals Dig At Night

In a 1992 Biological Opinion, the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service concluded that may adversely affect the Aleutian Canada Goose (Branta canadensis leucopareia) and the Whooping Crane. Neither of these species has ever been reported in any feedlot or dairy in Arizona. Mitigation measures to avoid T&E impacts as well as the inherent safety features of What Animals Dig At Night that preclude hazards to mammals and plants were described in Chapter 3 (section 3.4.2.2) and are also described in section 4.1.4.1 of this chapter. 

Those measures should assure there would be no jeopardy to T&E species or adverse impacts on mammalian or non-T&E bird scavengers from the proposed action. None of the other control methods described in the proposed action alternative pose any hazard to nontarget or T&E species. 4.1.2.2 Alternative 2 - No Federal Bird Damage Management Alternative 2 would not allow any What Animals Dig At Night in the State. There would be no impact on nontarget or T&E species by activities from this alternative. 

However, private efforts to reduce or prevent depredations could increase which could result in less experienced persons implementing control methods and could lead to greater take of nontarget wildlife than the proposed action. Hazards to raptors, including bald eagles and peregrine falcons, could therefore be greater under this What Animals Dig At Night alternative. It is hypothetically possible that frustration caused by the inability to reduce losses could lead to illegal use of chemical toxicants which could impact local nontarget species populations, including T&E species. 

Hazards to raptors, including bald eagles, could therefore be greater under this alternative if chemicals that are less selective or that cause secondary poisoning are used by frustrated private individuals. 4.1.2.3 Alternative 3 - Technical Assistance Only Alternative 3 would not allow any What Animals Dig At Night direct operational in the area. There would be no impact on nontarget or T&E species by activities from this alternative. Technical assistance or self-help information would be provided at the request of producers and others. 

Although technical support might lead to more selective use of control methods by private parties than that which might occur under Alternative 2, private efforts to reduce or prevent depredations could result in less experienced persons What Animals Dig At Night implementing control methods leading to greater take of nontarget wildlife. Hazards to raptors, including bald eagles and peregrine falcons, could therefore be greater under this alternative. 

It is hypothetically possible that, similar to Alternative 2, frustration caused by the inability to reduce losses could lead to illegal use of chemical toxicants which could lead to unknown impacts on local nontarget species populations, including T&E species. Hazards to raptors, including bald eagles, could What Animals Dig At Night therefore be greater under this alternative if chemicals that are less selective or that cause secondary poisoning are used by frustrated private individuals. 

Alternative 4 - Nonlethal Required Before Lethal Under this alternative, take of nontarget animals would probably be less than that of the proposed action because no preventive lethal control actions would be taken by What Animals Dig At Night. Mitigation measures to avoid T&E impacts were described in Chapter 3. Those measures should assure that adverse impacts are not likely to occur to T&E species from activities if Alternative 4 was implemented. However, if producers were not satisfied by corrective control only operations by, private efforts to reduce or prevent depredations could increase. 

This could result in less experienced persons implementing control methods and could lead to greater take of nontarget wildlife than the proposed action. Hazards to raptors, including bald eagles and peregrine falcons, could therefore be greater What Animals Dig At Night under this alternative. It is hypothetically possible that, similar to Alternative 2, frustration caused by the inability to reduce losses could lead to illegal use of chemical toxicants which could further lead to unknown impacts on localnontarget species populations, including T&E species. 

Hazards to raptors, including bald eagles and falcons, could therefore be greater under this alternative if chemicals that are less selective or that causesecondary poisoning are used by frustrated private individuals. What Animals Dig At Night is the primary lethal chemical method that would be used under the current program alternative. This chemical is one of the most extensively researched and evaluated pesticides ever developed. Over 30 years of studies have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of this compound. 

Non-target hazards are low due to the low degree of sensitivity most other bird species have for this chemical. The compound acts in a humane manner producing a quiet and painless death. The compound is unstable in the environment and degrades rapidly when exposed to sunlight and heat. What Animals Dig At Night is highly soluble in water but does not hydrolyze. Photo degradation occurs rapidly in water. The compound is tightly bound to soil and has low mobility. The half life is about 25 hours and identified metabolites have low toxicity. Secondary hazards of are almost nonexistent. 

For example, studies have been conducted in which blackbirds killed with What Animals Dig At Night were fed to raptors and scavenger mammals for 30 to 200 days, and no ill effects were noted (USDA 1995). This can be attributed to relatively low toxicity to species that might scavenge on blackbirds and starlings killed by this chemical and its tendency to be almost completely metabolized in the target birds which leaves little residue to be ingested by scavengers. This means there is virtually no hazard to pet dogs and cats or other animals that might pick up and eat birds killed by this chemical. 

Other nonlethal chemicals that might be used or recommended by What Animals Dig At Night if they become registered would be repellents such as methyl anthranilate (artificial grape flavoring used in foods and soft drinks sold for human consumption) which is currently being investigated as a livestock feed additive. Such chemicals must undergo rigorous testing and research to prove safety, effectiveness, and low environmental risks before they would be registered by EPA or FDA. 4.1.3.2 Alternative 2 - No Federal Under this alternative, no legal usage of chemicals would occur. 

Frustration caused by the inability to reduce losses could lead to illegal use of chemical toxicants which could lead to unknown impacts on local nontarget species populations, including T&E species. Hazards to raptors, including bald eagles, falcons, and scavenging mammals, including pet dogs and cats, could What Animals Dig At Night therefore be greater under this alternative if chemicals that are less selective or that cause secondary poisoning are used by frustrated private individuals. Alternative 3 - Technical Assistance Only. 

Impacts under this alternative would be similar to those described in Alternative 2. Alternative 4 - Nonlethal Required Before Lethal. Impacts under this alternative would be similar to those described in Alternative 2, but to a lesser degree. Does the value of livestock feed saved equal or exceed the cost of providing What Animals Dig At Night service at cattle feeding facilities? Alternative 1 -Continue the Current Program (Proposed Action) Appendix B contains an analysis of the value of livestock feed saved on cooperating cattle feeding facilities by the current program. 

The analysis was intended to be conservative and indicates that approximately $120,000 worth of feed was saved on the facilities provided What Animals Dig At Night service in FY 1995. The Arizona program and cooperating feedlots and dairies spent $40,481 to control bird damage during FY 1995. Therefore, it appears that the value of feed saved exceeds the cost of without considering other benefits such as prevention of disease transmission, restored weight gain performance, and milk yields.

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