Basement Drying >> How To Stop A Basement Water Leak Waterproofing

The hydrologic cycle is the continuous circulation of water from land and sea to the atmosphere and back again : water evaporates from oceans, lakes, and rivers into the atmosphere. This water later precipitates as rain or snow onto the land where it evaporates or runs off into streams and rivers ; or How To Stop A Basement Water Leak Waterproofing it infiltrates (seeps) into the soil How To Stop A Basement Water Leak Waterproofing and rock from which some is transpired back into the atmosphere by plants. The remainder How To Stop A Basement Water Leak Waterproofing becomes ground water, which eventually seeps into streams or lakes from which it evaporates or flows to the How To Stop A Basement Water Leak Waterproofing oceans.
 
 GROUND WATER
Ground water is that part of precipitation that infiltrates through the How To Stop A Basement Water Leak Waterproofing soil to the water table. How To Stop A Basement Water Leak Waterproofing The unsaturated material above the water table contains air and water in the spaces between the rock particles and supports vegetation. In the saturated zone below the How To Stop A Basement Water Leak Waterproofing water table, ground water fills in the spaces between rock particles and within bedrock fractures. Rock materials may be classified as consolidated rock (often called bedrock) and may How To Stop A Basement Water Leak Waterproofing consist of sandstone, limestone, granite, and other rock, and as unconsolidated rock that consists of granular material How To Stop A Basement Water Leak Waterproofing such as sand, gravel, and clay.
 
Two characteristics of all rocks that affect the presence and movement of ground water are porosity (size and amount of void How To Stop A Basement Water Leak Waterproofing spaces) and permeability(the relative ease with How To Stop A Basement Water Leak Waterproofing which water can move through spaces in the rock). Consolidated rock may contain fractures, small cracks, pore spaces, spaces between layers, and solution openings, all of which are usually connected and can hold water. Bedded How To Stop A Basement Water Leak Waterproofing sedimentary rock contains spaces between layers that can transmit water great distances. Most bedrock contains How To Stop A Basement Water Leak Waterproofing vertical fractures that may intersect other fractures, enabling water to move from one layer to another.
 
Water can dissolve How To Stop A Basement Water Leak Waterproofing carbonate rocks, such as limestone and dolomite, forming solution channels through which water can move both vertically and horizontally. Limestone caves are a good example of solution channels. How To Stop A Basement Water Leak Waterproofing Consolidated rock may How To Stop A Basement Water Leak Waterproofing be buried below many hundred feet of unconsolidated rock or may crop out at the land surface. Depending upon the size and number of connected openings, this bedrock may yield plentiful water to How To Stop A Basement Water Leak Waterproofing individual wells or be a poor water-bearing system. Unconsolidated material overlies bedrock and may consist of How To Stop A Basement Water Leak Waterproofing rock debris transported by glaciers or deposited by streams or deposited in lakes. It also How To Stop A Basement Water Leak Waterproofing may consist of weathered bedrock particles that form a loose granular or clay soil.
 
 Well-sorted How To Stop A Basement Water Leak Waterproofing unconsolidated material can store large quantites of ground water; the coarser materials—sand and How To Stop A Basement Water Leak Waterproofing gravel—readily yield water to wells. A close look at the rocks exposed in road cuts and along streams will How To Stop A Basement Water Leak Waterproofing show the types of openings in which ground water can occur. Especially noticeable in bedrock exposures are How To Stop A Basement Water Leak Waterproofing spaces between layers that can extend for miles-the void spaces between rock particles contain water that percolates into these spaces between the layers. In most sand and gravel How To Stop A Basement Water Leak Waterproofing deposits, water occupies and moves freely within granular material.
 
Most of the void spaces in the rocks below the water table are filled with water. Wherever How To Stop A Basement Water Leak Waterproofing these water-bearing rocks readily transmit water to wells or springs, they are calledaquifers. Although ground water can move from How To Stop A Basement Water Leak Waterproofing one aquifer into another, it generally follows the more permeable pathways within the individual aquifers from the point of recharge (areas where materials above the aquifer are permeable enough to How To Stop A Basement Water Leak Waterproofing permit infiltration of precipitation to the aquifer) to the point of discharge (areas at which the water table intersects the land surface and water leaves an aquifer by way of springs, streams, or How To Stop A Basement Water Leak Waterproofing lakes and wetlands). Where water moves beneath a layer of clay or other dense, low-permeability material, it is How To Stop A Basement Water Leak Waterproofing effectively confined, often under pressure. The pressure in most confined aquifers causes the water level in a well tapping the aquifer to rise above the top of the aquifer. Where How To Stop A Basement Water Leak Waterproofing the pressure is sufficient, the water may flow from a well.
 
 GROUND WATER IS CONSTANTLY MOVING
 Ground water is How To Stop A Basement Water Leak Waterproofing always moving by the force of gravity from recharge areas to discharge areas. Ground-water movement in How To Stop A Basement Water Leak Waterproofing most areas is slow-a few feet per year. But, in more permeable zones, such as solution channels in limestone, movement How To Stop A Basement Water Leak Waterproofing can be as much as several feet per day. Evidence of the movement of ground water through rock and soil can be seen in road cuts, especially in winter, when the water freezes How To Stop A Basement Water Leak Waterproofing upon emerging from the rock. In some bedrock exposures, the water emerges along partings between How To Stop A Basement Water Leak Waterproofing rock layers ; in others, along vertical fractures.
 
SEASONAL PATTERNS OF GROUND-WATER RECHARGE AND STORAGE
In latitudes where freezing How To Stop A Basement Water Leak Waterproofing is common, there is less recharge from rain or snowmelt during winter, which causes the water table to fall. Sporadic or differential freezing of the soil in the fall and winter inhibits How To Stop A Basement Water Leak Waterproofing recharge to the saturated How To Stop A Basement Water Leak Waterproofing zone, and the complete freezing of the soil in winter prevents all recharge until the soil thaws in the spring. Ground water, emerging from bedding planes, has created How To Stop A Basement Water Leak Waterproofing spectacular frozen waterfalls along a road cut. The saturated zone beneath the water table is recharged by the excess water that is not discharged to streams. The resulting rise in the water table increases ground-water storage (the volume of ground water How To Stop A Basement Water Leak Waterproofing stored within an aquifer system).
 
In late spring, summer, and early How To Stop A Basement Water Leak Waterproofing fall, evaporation and transpiration by plants capture most of the water that would otherwise recharge the How To Stop A Basement Water Leak Waterproofing aquifer, while discharge to streams continues. A seasonal decrease in ground-water storage results, How To Stop A Basement Water Leak Waterproofing as indicated by declining water levels in wells. In winter, freezing of the soil prevents recharge, How To Stop A Basement Water Leak Waterproofing which again causes a decline in storage. In early spring, frequent precipitation coupled with How To Stop A Basement Water Leak Waterproofing water from snowmelt causes a rapid increase in storage and a rise in the water table.
 
EFFECTS OF LONG-TERM CLIMATIC TRENDS ON GROUND-WATER STORAGE
 In addition to seasonal How To Stop A Basement Water Leak Waterproofing fluctuations in ground-water storage, long-term trends result from the variations in precipitation. Several years of How To Stop A Basement Water Leak Waterproofing below-normal precipitation causes a progressive decline in ground-water levels, and several years of above-normal precipitation causes a corresponding rise. These long-term climatic trends cause changes in ground-water storage. During How To Stop A Basement Water Leak Waterproofing periods of long-term, above-average precipitation, the water table may rise close to the land surface How To Stop A Basement Water Leak Waterproofing and interfere with home construction and waste disposal. For example, if a home had been built with a basement 8 feet below land surface during 1980-82 at the site of the well whose hydrograph How To Stop A Basement Water Leak Waterproofing is shown below, the basement would have been flooded in 1983 and 1984.

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