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OSHA is concerned that the words "treated to render bloodborne pathogens noninfectious" may present a problem because there is little or no information in the record that deals with such treatment. The standard does recognize that some blood and blood components and blood products present little or  Crime Scene Robbery Cleaner Training no occupational risk.

An exception to the labeling requirement was made for these products. The exemption is found in paragraph (g)(1)(i)(F) which states: Crime Scene Robbery Cleaner Training Containers of blood or blood components  that are labeled as to their contents and have been released for transfusion or other clinical use are exempted from the  labeling requirements of paragraph. 

"Bloodborne Pathogens" means pathogenic microorganisms that are present in human blood  and that can infect and cause disease in persons who are exposed to blood  containing these pathogens. Crime Scene Robbery Cleaner Training The definition lists hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as examples of such microorganisms. 

Dr. Jeffery Squires and Mr. Andrew Montano  requested that OSHA provide a specific list of bloodborne pathogens as part of the definition (Ex. 20-749; 20-1028). Crime Scene Robbery Cleaner Training Section IV Health Effects includes a discussion of other diseases  caused by bloodborne pathogens including hepatitis C and malaria.
 
Also syphilis, babesiosis, brucellosis, leptospirosis, arboviral infections, relapsing fever, Creutzfeld-Jakob Disease, Human T- lymphotrophic virus Type I, and Viral Hemorrhagic Fever. Crime Scene Robbery Cleaner Training HBV and HIV are given as examples because they are the viruses of greatest interest and present the  greatest risk. 

Adding additional examples to the definition would not improve the definition. Crime Scene Robbery Cleaner Training Another commenter suggested that the definition be modified to read "...microorganism and viruses..." because viruses are "not living creatures and the definition should include  them." (Alpha Environmental Management, Ex. 20-115). 

It is true that viruses are not living cells. As a minimum, they are composed of nucleic acid protected by a protein or lipoprotein coat. Crime Scene Robbery Cleaner Training As physical agents separated from a living host cell, they are incapable of reproducing or carrying on many of the functions that  can be performed by bacteria and fungi. 

However, once they enter the cell they are capable of taking over the cellular machinery and  reproducing themselves. Crime Scene Robbery Cleaner Training The term "microorganism" is well understood to refer to viruses as well as bacteria and fungi (Ex. 6-74, p.7). In addition, the  examples of HIV and HBV make the intention of the definition absolutely clear. 

"Clinical Laboratory" is defined as a workplace where diagnostic procedures or  other screening procedures are performed on blood or other potentially infectious materials. "Contaminated/Decontaminated" In the proposal, OSHA requested public comment on whether the terms "contaminated" and Crime Scene Robbery Cleaner Training "decontaminated" needed to be  defined. 

Of the who commented on this issue, a large number supported defining these terms, and several  proposed definitions (CDC/NIOSH, Ex. 20-634; AHA, Ex. 20-353; Society of Hospital Epidemiologists, Ex. 20-1002;  Crime Scene Robbery Cleaner Training American Biological Safety Association,  Ex. 241; Abbott Laboratories, Ex. 20-1227; American Society of Clinical Pathologists, Ex. 20-351.

American Association of Blood Banks, Ex. 20-1059; American Association of Critical-Care  Nurses, Ex. 20-1162; Baystate Medical Center, Ex. 20-22; Boone Hospital Center, Ex. 20-556; Crime Scene Robbery Cleaner Training Connecticut Dept. of Labor, Ex. 20-157; Office of the Assistant Secretary for Defense, Ex. 20-847; Pharmaceutical Manufacturers,  Ex. 20-729; 

South Carolina Dept. of Health and Environmental Control, Ex. 20-1160; State of Utah Dept. of Health, Ex. 20-605; Service Master Company,  Ex. 20-21; Visiting Nurse Corporation, Ex. 20-1268). Crime Scene Robbery Cleaner Training The problem anticipated by the Agency was  delineated clearly in the comment submitted by the Service Master Corporation which stated.

The terms "contaminated" and "decontaminated" should be  defined. While their definitions are understood by many healthcare personnel, there is still some misunderstanding. Crime Scene Robbery Cleaner Training Even journal articles by healthcare professionals, e.g. physicians, have used the term "infected" for inanimate  surfaces and water, where "contaminated" was the proper term to use. 

Likewise, the term "contaminated" has been used where "colonized" was the appropriate term. Such  misunderstanding can be even more widespread outside the healthcare community. Crime Scene Robbery Cleaner Training (Ex. 20-21) The Agency carefully reviewed the definitions  offered by the commenters. 

While no single criterion existed, many commenters urged OSHA to include some form of the concept of an infectious agent  capable of causing disease. Crime Scene Robbery Cleaner Training Several commenters recommended that contamination be defined on the basis of "visibility" of the contaminant (Abbott Laboratories, South Carolina Dept. of Health and Environmental Control, Visiting Nurse Corporation, Ex. 

While this approach would certainly cover some instances in which contamination was  present, Crime Scene Robbery Cleaner Training OSHA does not believe that being able to observe a contaminant on a surface is an adequate criteria for determining "contamination." 

Surfaces or  items can be heavily contaminated by a substance (e.g., serum, plasma), yet show no readily observable signs of such contamination.  Crime Scene Robbery Cleaner Training Other suggested  definitions of contamination employed criteria such as contact or exposure to blood.

Other potentially infectious materials (Connecticut Dept. of Labor; American Society of Clinical Pathologists, the ability of a material to  produce or transmit an infectious disease in humans. Crime Scene Robbery Cleaner Training (Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association, Ex. 20-729); the presence of microorganisms  capable of producing disease in humans (Service Master Company, Ex. 20-21).

The  presence of a bloodborne pathogens of sufficient hazard and concentration on an item or surface to cause disease in persons exposed to the surface or item (American Biological Safety Association, Ex. 241); Crime Scene Robbery Cleaner Training and the soiling with blood or other  potentially infectious material. 

All of these suggestions point to the concept that "contamination" should encompass the known or   suspected presence of an infectious agent on a surface or item. Crime Scene Robbery Cleaner Training OSHA agrees and therefore, the term "contamination" has been defined as the presence or the reasonably  anticipated presence of blood or other potentially infectious materials on an item or surface. 

Since contamination is determined by the presence or Crime Scene Robbery Cleaner Training reasonably anticipated presence of blood and other potentially infectious materials presumed to contain bloodborne pathogens, then it is reasonable to assume that "decontamination" represent the process of removing or   inactivating these pathogens. 

(CDC/NIOSH, Ex. 20-634; American Biological Safety Association, Ex. 241; Service Master Company, Ex. 20-21). Crime Scene Robbery Cleaner Training Therefore, OSHA is defining "decontamination," for the purposes of this standard, as the use of physical or chemical means to remove, inactivate.

Destroy bloodborne pathogens on a surface or item to the point where they are no longer capable of transmitting infectious particles Crime Scene Robbery Cleaner Training and the surface or item is considered safe for handling, use, or disposal.

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