Crime Scene Cleanup >> State Laws On Crime Scene Cleanups In Michigan

Moreover, it was not clear whether "reasonably anticipated" from the first sentence meant the same as "reasonably expected" in the second sentence. Some commenters found the language contradictory in that there might be situations where the exposures are incidental or infrequent yet reasonably anticipated due to the nature of the employee's duties and thus, State Laws On Crime Scene Cleanups In Michigan not excluded from coverage. 

Finally, some commenters pointed out that the language used in the second sentence was redundant in that the first sentence already defined occupational exposure as exposures to blood or State Laws On Crime Scene Cleanups In Michigan other potentially infectious materials that may result from the performance of an employee's duties. 

Because the term "employee's duties" implies the performance of duties that are part of the employee's job description, State Laws On Crime Scene Cleanups In Michigan the second sentence adds nothing by stating that exposure incidents not incurred by a worker in the normal course of his or her employment are not considered occupational. 

In attempting to convey the idea that exposures, such as the "Good Samaritan" act described above, are not considered "occupational exposures" for the purposes of this standard, the wording of the definition in the proposal was confusing. State Laws On Crime Scene Cleanups In Michigan Therefore, the Agency has concluded that the second sentence should be deleted. 

The purpose of this standard is to prevent bloodborne infections by eliminating or reducing occupational exposure. In order to achieve this goal, State Laws On Crime Scene Cleanups In Michigan it is necessary to know where and how such exposure can occur and who will be performing those tasks and procedures. 

In an ideal situation, no employee would ever have skin, eye, mucous membrane, or parenteral contact with blood and other potentially infectious materials. State Laws On Crime Scene Cleanups In Michigan A definition of occupational exposure that was limited to events in which not only an exposure incident occurs but also occurs each time the task is performed, would not achieve the goal of the standard. 

Despite the explanation in the proposal, some commenters interpreted the words "reasonably anticipated" to mean that contact with blood or State Laws On Crime Scene Cleanups In Michigan other potentially infectious materials would have to occur each time the task was performed in order to be considered occupational exposure. 

For example: Furthermore, the AABB maintains that, in the performance of a phlebotomist's duties in bleeding a normal blood donor, it is not reasonably anticipated that the phlebotomist will have skin or other contact with blood.  State Laws On Crime Scene Cleanups In Michigan It is the exception, not the rule, that the phlebotomist will have skin or other contact with blood.  

In order for employees to be protected from actual exposures, protective measures must be instituted before the blood or other potentially infectious materials come in contact with the person. State Laws On Crime Scene Cleanups In Michigan OSHA has concluded that the words "reasonably anticipated" give the employer clear guidance in determining which of his or her employees are covered under the standard. 

It is necessary for the employer to know who is potentially exposed so that the employer can assure that proper training, engineering and work practice controls, State Laws On Crime Scene Cleanups In Michigan personal protective equipment and the other provisions of the standard are implemented. 

This requires that the employer examine the tasks and procedures and determine if it can be reasonably anticipated that exposure may occur. For example, State Laws On Crime Scene Cleanups In Michigan it is reasonable to anticipate that when a needle is inserted into a vein for the purpose of withdrawing blood that some of the blood may contact the gloved or ungloved fingers of the phlebotomist. 

Such contact would not necessarily be expected to occur with each phlebotomy. "Other Potentially Infectious Materials" consists of three primary categories of material which have the potential to transmit bloodborne pathogens. State Laws On Crime Scene Cleanups In Michigan OSHA has used the term "potentially" to acknowledge that body fluids and tissues may or may not contain bloodborne pathogens. 

However, the provisions of the standard must be followed in any case. Under this definition, OSHA has included the body fluids specified by the CDC in their June 1988 update of guidelines for healthcare workers (Ex. 6-316). State Laws On Crime Scene Cleanups In Michigan The fluids covered by this definition are: semen, vaginal secretions, cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, pleural fluid, peritoneal fluid and pericardial fluid.

Amniotic fluid, saliva in dental procedures, and any other body fluid that is visibly contaminated with blood. In support of utilizing universal precautions when contacting these body fluids, CDC stated: State Laws On Crime Scene Cleanups In Michigan Universal precautions also apply to tissues and to the following fluids: cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), synovial fluid, pleural fluid, peritoneal fluid, pericardial fluid, and amniotic fluid. 

The risk of transmission of HIV and HBV from these fluids is unknown; State Laws On Crime Scene Cleanups In Michigan epidemiologic studies in the health-care and community setting are currently inadequate to assess the potential risk to health-care workers from occupational exposures to them. 

However, HIV has been isolated from CSF, synovial, and amniotic fluid , and HbsAg has been detected in synovial fluid, amniotic fluid and peritoneal fluid. State Laws On Crime Scene Cleanups In Michigan One case of HIV transmission was reported after a percutaneous exposure to bloody pleural fluid obtained by needle aspiration. 

Whereas aseptic procedures used to obtain these fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes protect health-care workers from skin exposures, they cannot prevent penetrating injuries due to contaminated needles or other sharp instruments. State Laws On Crime Scene Cleanups In Michigan (Ex. 6-316) Commenters generally agreed with using the CDC list. 

However, a number expressed the opinion that the focus should be on blood rather than other body fluids. Some representatives of the dental profession wondered why OSHA singled out saliva in dental procedures. State Laws On Crime Scene Cleanups In Michigan For example: [W]hy is saliva singled out in "dental procedures"? 

If saliva is to be considered a potentially infectious material only in dental procedures, then the diversity of dental procedures must be addressed. State Laws On Crime Scene Cleanups In Michigan The paragraph could be changed to read: "saliva visibly contaminated with blood" and thereby eliminate an apparent inconsistency with the public view regarding the infectiousness of saliva. 

(Federation of Prosthodontic Organizations, Ex. 20-232). While universal precautions do not generally apply to saliva, exception is made in the case of saliva in dentistry. State Laws On Crime Scene Cleanups In Michigan Addressing this situation, the CDC states: Special precautions, however, are recommended for dentistry . 

Occupationally acquired infection with HBV in dental workers has been documented , and two possible cases of occupationally acquired HIV infection involving dentists have been reported. State Laws On Crime Scene Cleanups In Michigan During dental procedures, contamination of saliva with blood is predictable, trauma to health-care workers' hands is common, and blood spattering may occur. 

Infection control precautions for dentistry minimize the potential for nonintact skin and State Laws On Crime Scene Cleanups In Michigan mucous membrane contact of dental health-care workers to blood-contaminated saliva of patients.(Ex. 6-316)

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