Dehumidification >> Determine The Size For A Dehumidifier

Reverse osmosis, alternatively, is based on membrane technology. Using a high-pressure pump, seawater is forced to flow through a membrane. The membrane only allows freshwater to pass while filtering out the dissolved minerals. Freshwater is produced as a result of this filtering with any previously dissolved minerals retained on the Determine The Size For A Dehumidifier input side of the filter. 

The primary restriction on the use of conventional multi-effect distillation, multi-stage flashing, Determine The Size For A Dehumidifier and reverse-osmosis technologies is that they are highly energy intensive. The cost of freshwater produced by these three desalination technologies is directly dependent upon the cost of energy, primarily electricity and/or high-grade (high-temperature) thermal energy. 

While these technologies may be considered cost-effective in regions, such as the Middle East, Determine The Size For A Dehumidifier having abundant and economical local petrochemical energy supplies they are not well suited to regions such as Hawai'i because of the high energy cost. The primary energy source used in Hawai'i has long been unrefined oil shipped in from Southeast Asia. 

Additionally, these three conventional technologies operate under specialized temperature Determine The Size For A Dehumidifier or pressure conditions, e. g., multi-effect distillation requires working temperatures above 100° C, multi-stage flashing requires greatly reduced pressures, and reverse osmosis requires high initial flow pressures and produces asignificant reduction of these flow pressures. 

All of these technological requirements lead to high infrastructure Determine The Size For A Dehumidifier and operating costs. In contrast, humidification-dehumidification (HDH) seawater desalination represents a relatively new desalination method based on heat and mass-transfer processes. Normal atmospheric air is employed as the medium to convert seawater to freshwater. 

HDH seawater desalination involves two processes. Seawater is first Determine The Size For A Dehumidifier converted to water vapor by evaporation into dry air in an evaporator (humidification). This water vapor is then condensed out from the air in a condenser to produce freshwater (dehumidification). HDH seawater desalination operates under more moderate working temperatures (<80° C) and near-ambient system pressures and requires only moderate flow pressures. 

Given these more moderate system specifications, Determine The Size For A Dehumidifier low-cost materials such as conventional plastics may be used for system construction. These relatively easy-to-achieve construction requirements are expected to lead to a lower infrastructure cost. Because of the more moderate operating-temperature requirement, HDH seawater desalination can easily be driven by sustainable solar energy. 

This makes HDH seawater desalination particularly attractive to Hawai'i. While its geographical location makes electricity Determine The Size For A Dehumidifier and high-grade petrochemical-based thermal energy expensive in Hawai'i, there is abundant solar radiation throughout the islands. Several literature studies are available that explore HDH as an effective means for seawater desalination. 

The early Determine The Size For A Dehumidifier work includes those by Bourouni et al. (2001), Al-Hallaj et al. (1998), Assouad and Lavan (1988), Muller-Holst et al. (1999), Abdel-Salam et al. (1993), Xiong et al. (2005), Shaobo et al. (2005), Xiong et al. (2005), El-Dessouky (1989), Goosen et al. (2003), and Al-Hallaj and Selman (2002). 

In these studies conventional shell-and-tube heat exchangers were used as condensers for the dehumidification process. Film condensation over tubes is extremely inefficient as the process involves condensing water vapor out of a mixture of air Determine The Size For A Dehumidifier and water vapor. The presence of air adversely affects the access of water vapor to the cold tube surface. 

Klausner and co-workers at the University of Florida described (Klausner et al. 2004, Klausner et al. 2006, Li et al. 2006, Li et al. 2006) an innovative diffusion-driven desalination technology to overcome the aforementioned shortcoming. To enhance the condensation in the presence of air, Determine The Size For A Dehumidifier a direct-contact condenser was used in diffusion-driven desalination. 

The diffusion-driven desalination was powered by waste heat derived from low-pressure condensing steam from a power plant Determine The Size For A Dehumidifier and is viable for industrial-scale freshwater production. Practical implementation of solar-energy-driven HDH seawater desalination systems requires a fundamental understanding of thermal/fluid transport phenomena in virtually all system components. 

Our research team launched a research program to establish such a knowledge Determine The Size For A Dehumidifier base through combined theoretical modeling and experimental study. The project supported by the extension of the 2008 U.S. Geological Survey State Water Resources Research Institute Program (WRRIP2008) constitutes the Phase II of the research program. 

The focus of the Phase II research is on developing a laboratory-scale experimental system to study parametric trends of the freshwater-production rate. Methodology Figure 1 shows a schematic diagram of the laboratory-scale experimental system designed Determine The Size For A Dehumidifier and constructed in our research lab. The system is composed of three main fluid-circulation lines identified in Figure 1 as saltwater, air/vapor, and freshwater. 

In the saltwater line an insulated tank stores the saltwater. Heat generated by five 1000-W electrical cartridge heaters installed in the tank, Determine The Size For A Dehumidifier used in the experimental system to simulate solar-energy input, raises the saltwater temperature. A centrifugal pump transports the heated saltwater to an evaporator. 

The heated saltwater is sprayed through a nozzle into the top of the evaporator so that it comes into direct contact with ambient-moisture air being pumped into the bottom of the evaporator. A portion of the heated saltwater evaporates Determine The Size For A Dehumidifier and thus humidifies the ambient air. Any saltwater not evaporated collects at the bottom of the evaporator and is returned to the insulated storage tank as high-salt brine. 

In the air/vapor line ambient air is pumped, using a forced-draft blower, into the bottom of the evaporator where it rises Determine The Size For A Dehumidifier and comes into direct contact with the heated saltwater being sprayed into the top of the evaporator chamber. Direct contact with the heated saltwater humidifies the ambient air. 

The now-humidified air is drawn out of the evaporator chamber and pumped into a condenser. In the condenser chamber the now-humidified air comes into direct contact with cold, Determine The Size For A Dehumidifier working, freshwater being sprayed into the top of the condenser. From the humid air salt-free water vapor now condenses into liquid water and mixes into the working freshwater. 

The lowered-humidity air remaining after the condensation process is ejected into the external Determine The Size For A Dehumidifier ambient air as exhaust. In the freshwater line a storage tank holds a fixed amount (limited by the presence of a drain in the sidewall of the tank) of working freshwater. This water is circulated using a centrifugal pump. 

Before entering the condenser the freshwater is cooled in a chiller to lower its temperature. Additional Determine The Size For A Dehumidifier freshwater captured through the condensation process, in excess of the storage tank's fixed limit of working water, is the newly desalinated water and flows through the storage-tank's drain into a collecting tank.

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