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In this research, the concept of produced water desalination by using new HD process was laboratory investigated through a lab-constructed HD unit. The influences of the operation parameters such as feed water temperature and flow rate, carrying air flow rate on purified water quality, productivity, and water recovery were investigated. The Best Ways To Dehumidify The research indicated that feed water temperature, water flow rate, as well as carry air flow rate show dramatic influence on water productivity and ion removal efficiency. Over 98% of dissolved salt was removed in a tubing-shell structured HD unit.
 
 Considerable enhancement in water productivity was achieved by deploying built-in capillary bundle as dehumidifier. The water productivity was increased from 48 to 311 ml/(m2 .h) with The Best Ways To Dehumidify water recovery reached 20.7% at 80. Desalination experiments with actual coal bed methane produced water indicated that both salt and dissolvable organics were removed efficiently by the HD process: the total dissolved solid was reduced from 1.98 to 104 to 76.75 mg/L while the total organic carbon was declined from 470.2 to 17.83 mg/L.
 
The purified produced water is suitable for many beneficial uses, such as agricultural irrigation and industry use. Produced water embodies the primary waste stream of oil, natural gas and coal bed methane production. It is very saline, sometimes nearly six times as salty as seawater, and contains dissolved hydrocarbons and organic matter as well. Produced The Best Ways To Dehumidify water disposal at the production site for land restoration or other beneficial uses will be the primary option for cost effective produced water management, due to the limitation in storage capacity and distribution technologies available at each particular site.
 
 For the purpose of direct disposal or land restoration, the deployment of advanced technologies for removing salts and dissolvable organics is generally required for attaining surface water discharge The Best Ways To Dehumidify standards or reuse criteria [Dallbauman et al., 2005]. For example, in New Mexico, any disposal of produced water must meet the standard promulgated by the Oil Conservation Division (OCD) of the New Mexico Energy, Minerals and Natural Resource Department (NMEMNRD).
 
 Unfortunately, ample experiments and demonstration tests have indicated that no cost-effective technologies can The Best Ways To Dehumidify effectively treat produced water to substantial quality that meets the direct disposal quality criteria. As a result, the bulk of produced water (>90%) is currently managed through a threestep process: (1) lifting produced water to the surface, (2) transportation to the disposal site, and (3) deep well injection or evaporation [Veil, 2004].
 
Both transportation and deep well injection are costly and offers potential contamination to groundwater systems, and thus face strict regulation. The average disposal cost for produced water in NM is ~$2.5/bbl, with a major part of this cost attributed to its transportation in most of the producing areas of NM [Veil, 2004]. osal can potentially The Best Ways To Dehumidify convert an uneconomic production from otherwise beneficial wells, particularly those marginal wells with poor establishment in water transportation systems.
 
 As a result, some of the operations were forced to be abandoned. In addition, many oil/gas exploration activities render land more vulnerable to degradation, because of the scarcity of water. The Best Ways To Dehumidify The effects of this potential degradation threaten to restrict energy exploration, and the cost of the subsequent infrastructure degradation could be substantial. Purified produced water can be a valuable clean water resource for restoring the landscape and maintaining native vegetation.
 
 Considering the undesirable effects of high costs and land The Best Ways To Dehumidify degradation, it is desirable to develop a method of cleaning produced water for directly disposal at wellhead. High concentration of salts and hydrocarbons are generally present in produced water. The conventional oil/water separations used in oil/gas industry, such as gravity separation and micro filtration process, have no influence on the concentration of dissolved components in produced water.
 
However, the presence of dissolved components shows a major impact on the receiving environment due to their toxicity. The The Best Ways To Dehumidify primary concern is the high salt concentration which causes soil degradation and serious corrosion and dissolved hydrocarbons. Many of the dissolved hydrocarbons are toxic, particularly the chemicals with small molecule aromatics, such as toluene, benzene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX).
 
 In some cases, dissolved metal ions and radioactive elements are also dissolved in produced water and must be removed for disposal. Typical dissolved components in produced water The Best Ways To Dehumidify are shown in Table 1-1. In the past decade, many efforts have been made to purify produced water to substantial quality for disposal or beneficial use. The conventional demineralization technologies include reverse osmosis (RO), distillation, electrodialysis, freeze desalination, and ion exchange [Cox et al., 1993].
 
Technologies for dissolved organic removal include air stripping, activated carbon adsorption, synthetic zeolite adsorption, membrane filtration, biological treatment and wet air oxidation [Hansen et al., 1992]. Each technology has its limitation in produced water purification The Best Ways To Dehumidify due to the complex chemical composition. Table 1-2 summarizes the approaches of dissolved component removal from produced water and characteristics of each technology.
 
 Even with rapid advancement in water demineralization technologies, water purification at the wellhead would need to be tailored The Best Ways To Dehumidify to meet the specific characteristics of water production in each individual well. First, the amount of water at each particular site is limited by well production and by available storage capacity and distribution pipelines at the site.
 
 The 5 desalination technology used must be efficient for application in small or medium-scale water treatment scenarios and insensitive to the variability in water chemistry. Secondly, formation and production The Best Ways To Dehumidify history will have a dramatic influence on produced water quality and how the purification technology can be deployed. The produced water purification process must be highly efficient for produced waters with variable chemistry.
 
Finally, any sophisticated pretreatments must be avoided due to the high operation cost; the novel strategy of produced water purification must be tolerant of solid suspensions and floating oil. Unfortunately, The Best Ways To Dehumidify the membrane technologies, such as reverse osmosis and electrodialysis, generally require multistage pretreatment for fouling removal and are only economically competitive for large quantities of water (i.e. >1000 m3 /d) [Ettouney et al., 2004].
 
Thermal processes have advantages of high purity product but are limited by the high energy intensity associated with phase changes. Water purification tactics must be adapted to meet the unique The Best Ways To Dehumidify characteristics of produced water production from oil/gas and CBM production field, particularly addressing the limitations in well production and water availability at each particular site.

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Desalination produces freshwater by removing dissolved minerals from seawater. The process has a long history as an effective means to meet agricultural, domestic, and industrial freshwater needs in coastal areas. Technologically mature conventional desalination processes that have been widely used   read more..