Asbestos Abatement >> Certifications For Asbestos Pipe Removal

Analytical Procedure: A portion of the sample filter is cleared and prepared for asbestos fiber counting by Phase Contrast Microscopy (PCM) at 400X. Commercial manufacturers and products mentioned in this method are for descriptive use only and do not constitute endorsements by USDOL-OSHA. Similar products from other Certifications For Asbestos Pipe Removal sources can be substituted. 

Introduction This method describes the collection of airborne asbestos fibers using calibrated sampling pumps with mixed-cellulose ester (MCE) filters and Certifications For Asbestos Pipe Removal analysis by phase contrast microscopy (PCM). Some terms used are unique to this method and are defined below: Asbestos: A term for naturally  occurring fibrous minerals. 

Asbestos includes chrysotile, crocidolite, amosite (cummingtonite-grunerite asbestos), tremolite asbestos, actinolite asbestos, anthophyllite asbestos, and any of these minerals that have been chemically treated and/or altered. The Certifications For Asbestos Pipe Removal precise chemical formulation of each species will vary with the location from which it was mined. 

Nominal compositions areCertifications For Asbestos Pipe Removal listed: Chrysotile, Crocidolite, Amosite, Tremolite-actinolite, Anthophyllite, Asbestos Fiber:A fiber of asbestos which meets the criteria specified below for a fiber. Aspect Ratio:The Certifications For Asbestos Pipe Removal ratio of the length of a fiber to it's diameter (e.g. 3:1, 5:1 aspect ratios). 

Cleavage Fragments: Mineral particles formed by comminution of minerals, especially those characterized by parallel sides and a moderate aspect ratio (usually less than 20:1). Detection Limit:The Certifications For Asbestos Pipe Removal number of fibers necessary to be 95% certain that the result is greater than zero. 

Differential Counting: The term applied to the practice of excluding certain kinds of fibers from the fiber count because they do not appear to be asbestos. Fiber:A particle that is 5 um or longer, with a length-to-width ratio of 3 to 1 or longer. Field: The Certifications For Asbestos Pipe Removal area within the graticule circle that is superimposed on the microscope image. 

Set:The samples which are taken, submitted to the laboratory, analyzed, and for which, interim or final result reports are generated. Tremolite, Anthophyllite, and Actinolite:The non-asbestos form of these Certifications For Asbestos Pipe Removal minerals which meet the definition of a fiber. 

It includes any of these minerals that have been chemically treated and/or altered. An eyepiece graticule specifically designed for asbestos fiber counting. It consists of a circle with a projected diameter of 100 + or - 2 um (area of about 0.00785 mm(2)) with a crosshair having tic-marks at 3-um Certifications For Asbestos Pipe Removal intervals in one direction and 5-um in the orthogonal direction. 

There are marks around the periphery of the circle to demonstrate the proper sizes and shapes of fibers. This design is reproduced in Figure 1. The disk is placed in one of the microscope eyepieces so that the design is superimposed on the Certifications For Asbestos Pipe Removal field of view. 

History Early surveys to determine asbestos exposures were conducted using impinger counts of total dust with the counts expressed as million particles per cubic foot. The British Asbestos Research Council recommended filter membrane Certifications For Asbestos Pipe Removal counting in 1969. 

The Bureau of Occupational Safety and Health published a filter membrane method for counting asbestos fibers in the United States. This Certifications For Asbestos Pipe Removal method was refined by NIOSH and published as P & CAM 239. On May 29, 1971, OSHA specified filter membrane sampling with phase contrast counting for evaluation of asbestos exposures at work sites in the United States. 

The use of this technique was again required by OSHA in 1986. Phase contrast microscopy has continued to be the Certifications For Asbestos Pipe Removal method of choice for the measurement of occupational exposure to asbestos. 1.2. Principle Air is drawn through a MCE filter to capture airborne asbestos fibers. 

A wedge shaped portion of the filter is removed, placed on a glass microscope slide and made transparent. A measured area (field) is viewed by PCM. All the fibers meeting defined criteria for asbestos are counted and Certifications For Asbestos Pipe Removal considered a measure of the airborne asbestos concentration. 

Advantages and Disadvantages There are four main advantages of PCM over other methods: (1) The technique is specific for fibers. Phase contrast is a fiber counting technique which excludes non-fibrous particles from the analysis. (2) The Certifications For Asbestos Pipe Removal technique is inexpensive and does not require specialized knowledge to carry out the analysis for total fiber counts. 

The analysis is quick and can be performed on-site for rapid determination of air concentrations of asbestos fibers. (4) The technique has continuity with historical epidemiological studies so that estimates of expected disease can be inferred from long-term determinations of asbestos exposures. The main Certifications For Asbestos Pipe Removal disadvantage of PCM is that it does not positively identify asbestos fibers. 

Other fibers which are not asbestos may be included in the count unless differential counting is performed. This Certifications For Asbestos Pipe Removal requires a great deal of experience to adequately differentiate asbestos from non-asbestos fibers. Positive identification of asbestos must be performed by polarized light or electron microscopy techniques. 

A further disadvantage of PCM is that the smallest visible fibers are about 0.2 um in diameter while the finest asbestos fibers may be as small as 0.02 um in diameter. For some Certifications For Asbestos Pipe Removal exposures, substantially more fibers may be present than are actually counted. 

Workplace Exposure Asbestos is used by the construction industry in such Certifications For Asbestos Pipe Removal products as shingles, floor tiles, asbestos cement, roofing felts, insulation and acoustical products. Non-construction uses include brakes, clutch facings, paper, paints, plastics, and fabrics. 

One of the most significant exposures in the workplace is the removal and encapsulation of asbestos in schools, public buildings, and homes. Many workers have the potential to be exposed to asbestos during these Certifications For Asbestos Pipe Removal operations. About 95% of the asbestos in commercial use in the United States is chrysotile. 

Crocidolite and amosite make up most of the remainder. Anthophyllite and tremolite or actinolite are likely to be encountered as contaminants in various industrial products. 1.5. Physical Properties Asbestos fiber possesses a high tensile strength along its axis, is chemically inert, non-combustible, and Certifications For Asbestos Pipe Removal heat resistant. 

It has a high electrical resistance and good sound absorbing properties. It can be weaved into cables, fabrics or other textiles, and also matted into asbestos papers, felts, or mats. Range and Detection Limit 2.1. The ideal Certifications For Asbestos Pipe Removal counting range on the filter is 100 to 1,300 fibers/mm(2). With a Walton-Beckett graticule this range is equivalent to 0.8 to 10 fibers/field. 

Using NIOSH counting statistics, a count of 0.8 fibers/field would give an approximate coefficient of variation (CV) of 0.13. 2.2. The detectionCertifications For Asbestos Pipe Removal limit for this Certifications For Asbestos Pipe Removal method is 4.0 fibers per 100 fields or 5.5 fibers/mm(2). This was determined using an equation to estimate the maximum CV possible at a specific concentration (95% confidence) and a Lower Control Limit of zero. 

The CV value was then used to determine a corresponding concentration from historical CV vs fiber relationships. As an Certifications For Asbestos Pipe Removal example: Lower Control Limit (95% Confidence) = AC - 1.645(CV)(AC) Where: AC = Estimate of the airborne fiber concentration (fibers/cc) Setting the Lower Control Limit = 0 and solving for CV: 0 = AC - 1.645(CV)(AC) CV = 0.61 This value was compared with CV vs. count curves. 

The count at which CV = 0.61 for Leidel-Busch counting statistics or for an OSHA Salt Lake Technical Center (OSHA-SLTC) CV curve was 4.4 fibers or 3.9 fibers per 100 fields, respectively. Although a lower detection limit of 4 fibers per 100 fields is supported by the OSHA-SLTC data, both Certifications For Asbestos Pipe Removal data sets support the 4.5 fibers per 100 fields value.

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