Asbestos Abatement >> DIY Removal Of Linoleum With Asbestos

Examination of the equation for asbestos minerals reveals that the visible colors for almost all common asbestos minerals and fiber sizes are shades of gray and black. The eye is relatively poor at DIY Removal Of Linoleum With Asbestos discriminating different shades of gray. 

It is very good at discriminating different colors. In order to compensate for the low  retardation, a compensator is added to the light train between the polarization elements. The DIY Removal Of Linoleum With Asbestos compensator used for this test is a  gypsum plate of known thickness and birefringence. 

Such a compensator when oriented at 45 deg. to the polarizer direction, provides a retardation of 530 nm of the 530 nm wavelength color. This DIY Removal Of Linoleum With Asbestos enhances the red color and gives the background a characteristic red to red-magenta color. 

If this "full-wave" compensator is in place when the asbestos preparation is inserted into the light train, the colors seen on the fibers are quite different. Gypsum, like asbestos has a fast axis and a slow axis. When a fiber is aligned with its fast axis in the same DIY Removal Of Linoleum With Asbestos direction as the fast axis of the gypsum plate, the ray vibrating in the slow direction is retarded by both the asbestos and the gypsum. 

This results in a higher retardation than would be present for either of the two minerals. The color seen is a second order blue. When the fiber is rotated 90 deg. using the rotating stage, the slow direction of the fiber is now aligned with the fast direction of the gypsum and the fast DIY Removal Of Linoleum With Asbestos direction of the fiber is aligned with the slow direction of the gypsum. 

Thus, one ray vibrates faster in the fast direction of the gypsum, and slower in the slow direction of the fiber; the other ray will vibrate slower in the slow direction of the gypsum and faster in the fast direction of the fiber. In this DIY Removal Of Linoleum With Asbestos case, the effect is subtractive and the color seen is a first order yellow. 

As long as the fiber thickness does not add appreciably to the color, the same basic colors will be seen for all asbestos types except crocidolite. In crocidolite the colors will be weaker, may be in the opposite DIY Removal Of Linoleum With Asbestos directions, and will be altered by the blue absorption color natural to crocidolite. 

Hundreds of other materials will give the same colors as asbestos, and therefore, this test is not definitive for asbestos. The DIY Removal Of Linoleum With Asbestos test is useful in discriminating against fiberglass or other amorphous fibers such as some synthetic fibers. 

Certain synthetic fibers will show retardation colors different than asbestos; however, there are some forms of polyethylene and aramid which will show morphology and retardation colors similar to asbestos minerals. This DIY Removal Of Linoleum With Asbestos test must be supplemented with a positive identification test when birefringent fibers are present which can not be excluded by morphology. 

This test is relatively ineffective for use on fibers less than 1 um in diameter. For positive confirmation TEM or SEM should be used if no larger bundles or fibers are visible. 4.6. Dispersion Staining Dispersion microscopy or dispersion staining is the DIY Removal Of Linoleum With Asbestos method of choice for the identification of asbestos in bulk materials. 

Becke line analysis is used by some laboratories and yields the same results as does dispersion staining for asbestos and can be used in lieu of dispersion staining. Dispersion staining is performed on the same DIY Removal Of Linoleum With Asbestos platform as the phase-polar analysis with the analyzer and compensator removed. 

One polarizing element remains to define the direction of the light so that the different indices of refraction of the fibers may be separately determined. Dispersion microscopy is a dark-field technique when used for asbestos. DIY Removal Of Linoleum With Asbestos particles are imaged with scattered light. 

Light which is unscattered is blocked from reaching the eye either by the back field image mask in a McCrone objective or a back field image mask in the phase condenser. The most convenient method is to use the rotating phase condenser to move an oversized phase ring into DIY Removal Of Linoleum With Asbestos place. 

The ideal size for this ring is for the central disk to be just larger than the objective entry aperture as viewed in the back focal plane. The larger the disk, the less scattered light reaches the eye. This will have the effect of diminishing the DIY Removal Of Linoleum With Asbestos intensity of dispersion color and will shift the actual color seen. 

The colors seen vary even on microscopes from the same DIY Removal Of Linoleum With Asbestos manufacturer. This is due to the different bands of wavelength exclusion by different mask sizes. The mask may either reside in the condenser or in the objective back focal plane. 

It is imperative that the analyst determine by experimentation with asbestos standards what the appropriate colors should be for each asbestos type. The colors depend also on the temperature of the preparation and the exact chemistry of the asbestos. Therefore, some slight differences from the DIY Removal Of Linoleum With Asbestos standards should be allowed. 

This is not a serious problem for commercial asbestos uses. This technique is used for DIY Removal Of Linoleum With Asbestos identification of the indices of refraction for fibers by recognition of color. There is no direct numerical readout of the index of refraction. Correlation of color to actual index of refraction is possible by referral to published conversion tables. 

This is not necessary for the analysis of asbestos. Recognition of appropriate colors along with the proper morphology are deemed sufficient to identify the commercial asbestos minerals. Other DIY Removal Of Linoleum With Asbestos techniques including SEM, TEM, and XRD may be required to provide additional information in order to identify other types of asbestos. 

Make a preparation in the suspected matching high dispersion oil, e.g., n = 1.550 for chrysotile. Perform the preliminary DIY Removal Of Linoleum With Asbestos tests to determine whether the fibers are birefringent or not. Take note of the morphological character. Wavy fibers are indicative of chrysotile while long, straight, thin, frayed fibers are indicative of amphibole asbestos. 

This can aid in the selection of the appropriate DIY Removal Of Linoleum With Asbestos matching oil. The microscope is set up and the polarization direction is noted as in Section 4.4. Align a fiber with the polarization direction. Note the color. This is the color parallel to the polarizer. Then rotate the fiber rotating the stage 90 deg. so that the polarization direction is across the fiber. 

This is the perpendicular position. Again note the color. Both colors must be consistent with standard asbestos minerals in the correct direction for a positive identification of asbestos. If only one of the colors is correct while the other is not, the DIY Removal Of Linoleum With Asbestos identification is not positive. 

If the colors in both directions are bluish-white, the DIY Removal Of Linoleum With Asbestos analyst has chosen a matching index oil which is higher than the correct matching oil, e.g. the analyst has used n = 1.620 where chrysotile is present. The next lower oil (Section 3.5.) should be used to prepare another specimen. 

If the color in both directions is yellow-white to straw-yellow-white, this DIY Removal Of Linoleum With Asbestos indicates that the index of the oil is lower than the index of the fiber, e.g. the preparation is in n = 1.550 while anthophyllite is present. Select the next higher oil (Section 3.5.) and prepare another slide. 

Continue DIY Removal Of Linoleum With Asbestos in this fashion until a positive identification of all asbestos species present has been made or all possible asbestos species have been ruled out by negative results in this test. Certain plant fibers can have similar dispersion colors as asbestos. 

Take care to note and evaluate the morphology of the fibers or remove the plant fibers in pre-preparation. Coating material on the fibers such as carbonate or vinyl may destroy the dispersion color. Usually, there will be some outcropping of fiber which will show the colors sufficient for DIY Removal Of Linoleum With Asbestos identification. 

When this is not the case, treat the sample as described in Section 3.3. and then perform dispersion staining. Some DIY Removal Of Linoleum With Asbestos samples will yield to Becke line analysis if they are coated or electron microscopy can be used for identification.

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