Asbestos Abatement >> How To Remove Asbestos Paint From A Ceiling

Treat at least two different areas of each phase in this fashion. Choose representative areas of the sample. It may be useful to select particular areas or fibers for analysis. This is useful to identify asbestos in severely in homogeneous How To Remove Asbestos Paint From A Ceiling samples. 

When it is  determined that amphiboles may be present, repeat the above process using the appropriate high-dispersion oils until an How To Remove Asbestos Paint From A Ceiling identification is made or all six asbestos minerals have been ruled out. Note that percent determination   must be done in the index medium 1.550 because amphiboles tend to disappear in their matching mediums. 

Analytical procedure Note: This method presumes some knowledge of  mineralogy and optical petrography. The analysis consists of three parts: The determination of whether there is asbestos present, what type How To Remove Asbestos Paint From A Ceiling is present and the determination of how much is present. The general flow of the analysis is: (1) Gross examination. (2) 

Examination under polarized light on the stereo microscope. (3) Examination by phase-polar illumination on the compound phase microscope. (4) Determination of How To Remove Asbestos Paint From A Ceiling species by dispersion stain. Examination by Becke line analysis may also be used; however, this is usually more cumbersome for asbestos determination. 

Difficult samples may need to be analyzed by SEM or TEM, or the results from those techniques combined with light microscopy for a definitive How To Remove Asbestos Paint From A Ceiling identification. Identification of a particle as asbestos requires that it be asbestiform. Description of particles should follow the suggestion of Campbell. 

For the purpose of regulation, the mineral must be one of the six minerals covered and must be in the asbestos growth habit. Large specimen How To Remove Asbestos Paint From A Ceiling samples of asbestos generally have the gross appearance of wood. Fibers are easily parted from it. Asbestos fibers are very long compared with their widths. 

The fibers have a very high tensile strength as demonstrated by bending without breaking. Asbestos fibers exist in bundles that are easily parted, show longitudinal fine How To Remove Asbestos Paint From A Ceiling structure and may be tufted at the ends showing "bundle of sticks" morphology. In the microscope some of these properties may not be observable. 

Amphiboles do not always show striations along their length even when they are asbestos. Neither will they always show tufting. They generally do not show a curved nature except for very long fibers. Asbestos and asbestiform minerals are usually characterized in groups by extremely high How To Remove Asbestos Paint From A Ceiling aspect ratios (greater than 100:1). 

While aspect ratio analysis is useful for characterizing populations of fibers, it cannot be used to identify individual fibers of intermediate to short aspect ratio. Observation of many fibers is often necessary to determine whether a How To Remove Asbestos Paint From A Ceiling sample consists of "cleavage fragments" or of asbestos fibers. 

Most cleavage fragments of the asbestos minerals are easily distinguishable from true asbestos fibers. This is because true cleavage fragments usually have larger diameters than 1 um. Internal How To Remove Asbestos Paint From A Ceiling structure of particles larger than this usually shows them to have no internal fibrillar structure. 

In addition, cleavage fragments of the monoclinic amphiboles show inclined extinction under crossed polars with no compensator. Asbestos fibers usually show extinction at zero degrees or ambiguous extinction if any at all. Morphologically, the larger How To Remove Asbestos Paint From A Ceiling cleavage fragments are obvious by their blunt or stepped ends showing prismatic habit. 

Also, they tend to be acicular rather than filiform. Where the particles are less than 1 um in diameter and have an aspect ratio greater than or equal to 3:1, it is recommended that the How To Remove Asbestos Paint From A Ceiling sample be analyzed by SEM or TEM if there is any question whether the fibers are cleavage fragments or asbestiform particles. 

Care must be taken when analyzing by electron microscopy because the interferences are different from those in light microscopy and may structurally be very similar to asbestos. The classic How To Remove Asbestos Paint From A Ceiling interference is between anthophyllite and biopyribole or intermediate fiber. 

Use the same morphological clues for electron microscopy as are used for light microscopy, e.g. fibril splitting, internal longitudinal striation, fraying, curvature, etc. (1) Gross examination: Examine the How To Remove Asbestos Paint From A Ceiling sample, preferably in the glass vial. Determine the presence of any obvious fibrous component. 

Estimate a percentage based on previous experience and current observation. Determine whether any pre-preparation is necessary. Determine the number of phases present. This How To Remove Asbestos Paint From A Ceiling step may be carried out or augmented by observation at 6 to 40 x under a stereo microscope. (2) After performing any necessary pre-preparation, prepare slides of each phase as described above. 

Two preparations of the same phase in the same index medium can be made side-by-side on the same glass for How To Remove Asbestos Paint From A Ceiling convenience. Examine with the polarizing stereo microscope. Estimate the percentage of asbestos based on the amount of birefringent fiber present. (3) Examine the slides on the phase-polar microscopes at magnifications of 160 and 400 x.

Note the morphology of the fibers. Long, thin, very straight fibers with little curvature are indicative of fibers from the amphibole family. Curved, wavy fibers are usually indicative of chrysotile. Estimate the percentage of asbestos on the phase-polar microscope under How To Remove Asbestos Paint From A Ceiling conditions of crossed polars and a gypsum plate. 

Fibers smaller than 1.0 um in thickness must be identified by inference to the presence of larger, identifiable fibers and morphology. If no larger fibers are visible, electron microscopy should be performed. At this point, only a How To Remove Asbestos Paint From A Ceiling tentative identification can be made. Full identification must be made with dispersion microscopy. 

Details of the tests are included in the appendices. (4) Once fibers have been determined to be present, they must be identified. Adjust the microscope for dispersion mode and observe the fibers. The microscope has a rotating stage, one polarizing element, and a How To Remove Asbestos Paint From A Ceiling system for generating dark-field dispersion microscopy (see Section 4.6. of this appendix). 

Align a fiber with its length parallel to the polarizer and note the color of the Becke lines. Rotate the stage to bring the fiber length perpendicular to the polarizer and note the color. Repeat this How To Remove Asbestos Paint From A Ceiling process for every fiber or fiber bundle examined. The colors must be consistent with the colors generated by standard asbestos reference materials for a positive identification. 

In n = 1.550, amphiboles will generally show a yellow to straw-yellow color indicating that the fiber indices of refraction are higher than the liquid. If long, thin fibers are noted and the colors are yellow, prepare further How To Remove Asbestos Paint From A Ceiling slides as above in the suggested matching liquids listed below:

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